When the total of two or more cards is greater than 10, the point total is reduced by 10. Despite this, with such a low house edge, the Banker bet is the safest bet in the long run.
A quick look at the odds in Punto Banco will show where the house has its edge – in the ‘Tie’ bets. The chances of the Banker bet winning are slightly higher than the Player bet, but bear in mind that if the Banker does win, a 5% commission, called the vigorish, will be deducted from your win. In all casino games, the house edge is lower only in some bets on craps. The aim of the game is to predict whose hand, the Banker’s (Banco) or the Player’s (Punto), will be closer to the value of nine. If you bet on the Banker’s hand, and win, the House charges a 5% commission.
quit when you’re ahead – when the ‘Tie’ bet wins, pocket your winnings and switch bets or games.
Whether you use the ?Tie? bet or not comes down to your gambling style. There is a margin here for profit for those wishing to take a slightly bigger risk.
So my recommended strategy for finding the edge in Punto Banco would be to stick with the Banker bet in the main, but occasionally ‘test the water’ by playing 4 or 5 bets on Tie, always remembering to stop if you’re losing and switch back if you’re winning.
limit your losses at the outset – decide how many losing bets you’re prepared to make in the session;
Remember, in Punto Banco, the winner is the one who predicts the winning hand, not the one who plays it.
If you bet on a hand, and the hand loses, you lose your bet. You can also bet on the possibility of a tie.
If the hand that you bet on wins, you are paid double your bet, unless you bet on a tie. But as explained in this article, that makes little difference to the clued-up gambler.
The important point to bear in mind when playing Punto Banco is that winning depends on the hand you bet on, not the hand you play.
The point values of the cards are very simple to follow. It is also (along with Sic Bo, Pai Gow and Keno) one of the Big Four Chinese gambling games and, as such, can be found in the separate Asian areas of m88.com casinos worldwide.
The big difference between Punto Banco and Baccarat is that there is no opportunity for the player to act as banker. If you do not bet on a tie, and the hands tie, your bet is returned to you.
The two main bets (Banker and Player) are similar in that their probabilities are equal, though the payouts and house edge differ.
Punto Banco is a variation of the European Baccarat, played primarily in North America, Canada and Australia. However, as with most casino games, the two do not exactly match – the odds of ‘Tie’ winning are 10.5-1, though the payout is only 8 to 1.
The Player bet has a slightly higher house edge, usually around 1.25%. If you bet on a tie, the payout is eight times the amount you bet. There also is no vigorish, so nothing is deducted from your winnings. This probably comes from playing Blackjack, where the player is always trying to beat the banker.. All 10?s and picture cards have a value of zero, and all other cards (Ace through 9) are worth their face value (Aces are always worth 1). If you’re looking to win big, it has to be considered as an option, so long as the rules of our betting strategy are followed:
The Banker bet is considered the safest as the house edge is closest to 1%. For example if a hand is dealt an 7 and a 5, resulting in a total of 12, 10 is subtracted, leaving a point total of 2 for that hand.
Some players find that betting on the Banker seems somehow unnatural, as though they’re betting against themself. For example, if you bet ?200 on the Banker, and win, your take will be ?390, not ?400 as on a ?200 Player bet. Probability states that this bet will win less frequently, and so the pay- out is correspondingly large, with the aim of tempting the player
Otherwise, the casino lovers would swear by the good old actual casino and playing there.
Slot machines, casino slot machine, casinos, all of them strike only one name in our minds – Las Vegas. It’s one place where casino enthusiasts from all over the world converge to play m88bet sot machine and have a gala time. Do not keep on playing at a particular slot machine, even if it is giving you a good pay out. Stop once you reach your limit.. Remember, there is a RNG which will make sure that you do not keep on winning. Do not be greedy and say ‘just one more’! You could loose whatever you might have won.
Some Helpful Tips
You have money, you are raring to go, but hey, wait up. And that would mean that you play slots till a set time.
It is a game of luck and chance, ultimately, so do not ever trust anyone.
You better know your casino slots, as different slots operate differently. If at all you are confused, check with the casino host.
Quit a particular machine, if you are not winning.
Finally, quit while you are on a high (I am referring to winning money here people!). RNG alters the result of the game thousand times per second. Completely understand the number of coins to be played for hitting the jackpot, because playing with a fewer coins would get you nothing.
Now winning on slot machines is a different ball game together. The table has a list of likely combinations and the coins or points each would pay. Set a limit not more than where you can comfortably loose. First one is understanding the operation of slot machines and then the strategies to win the game.
If you just want to play free slots for fun, opt for these online slot machines and online casinos. Therefore, fix up a budget and not a penny more and not a penny less. Slot machines can be, however, elusive. It is the best strategy for optimizing your winnings. It’s always better that way, so that you do not burn away your earnings.
How to Win on Slot Machines
That was all about winning a game on slot machine. That is the ultimate name when it comes to slot machine game. Some work by pulling the lever, some have different buttons. And remember that you can only pay cash. You fix the amount you can afford losing on any machine. Now a good way to limit your losses would be to decide it to 10 percent of your budget. Do not use a voucher for playing at a slot machine. What you need, is a good understanding of how the slot machines work. Leaving that particular machine after you win the specified amount, will prove good for you and would help you in not running behind extra money. Then, you would need to analyze the play table carefully. So, are you slotting? Go on! Rake in the ‘moolah’ (money)!
Operation of the Slot Machines: These slot machines are regulated by an electronic random number generator (RNG). Keep a watch on the jackpot bonuses. And most importantly, in case you have won a considerable amount, ask for the winnings through check. Again, be it a real casino or an online slot machine, you need to fix an amount you are going to try to win on a single slot machine. And the best way to ensure this would be to keep your cash cards, credit/debit cards at home!
Just as you set an amount limit, fix a time deadline. So, you need to be aware of that. Before you start, set a limit for the loss you might incur. If you are game for winning at slots and just want to hit the right combination at the slot machine, maybe you would want to try out the following things.
First things first, as mentioned earlier, you would need to set a limit to the amount you can spend. Enumerating here some pointers which would help you to win on slot machines.
Strategies to Win at Slots: Check out which machine gives you the best payout on specific number of coins spent. Winning at slots is nothing else but luck. Another good strategy in how to win slots is, ‘hit and run’
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This is a fun exercise when your team is drafted, as you can see who you would pick at this point and can watch players literally “come off the board”.
Each and every year the NFL draft is becoming more and more popular and is becoming a holiday of sorts for NFL and football fans. There may be several side-pots at any given point.
What if Nobody is Correct?
If nobody puts money in the bowl of the correct player, all of that money goes into a general pot, and the next person to correctly guess a player gets that money in addition their other winnings.
What if there is still money in the pot after round 1 ends?
If the day or round ends and there’s still money left to be won, the game goes to “overtime”. The mocks will then be scored and the money distributed in a way agreed upon (aka winner 75%, 2nd place 25%). At this point, no more money is m88 bet. The first person to get a pick correct gets all the money.Notes
For the first 10 picks of the draft, it is often more fun to have the 5th bowl labeled as “Rest of Field” instead of an actual player name. Aside from food, friends, and beverages, there’s no better way to increase the fun had during the NFL draft than by placing small bets with your friends. Creating between 10 and 20 of these questions and putting $1 down for each is a fun and creative way to think about the draft. Some watch it to see where their favorite college players get drafted, some watch the draft for the drama and trades, and many watch it to see which players their favorite team will be building its future around.. Here are some more sample prop bets:
With the NFL draft having moved to prime time in 2010, it’s now easier than ever to watch the draft and throw parties on draft day 1 (and beyond). Score the mock strictly by where the player is drafted with no regards to team using the following system:
Correct player in exact spot = 5 points
Correct player 1 spot off (+/-) = 3 points
Correct player 2 spots off (+/-) = 2 points
Correct player 3 spots off (+/-) = 1 point
Game 4: Your Big Board (non-betting)
This is not a betting game, but rather an exercise that allows you to better understand the draft’s depth and players.
Before the draft, create a printout, posterboard, or individual cards with approximately 75-100 of the draft’s top players arranged from top to bottom according to your preferences and team needs, as if you were the general manager. For this game, each person should make a mock draft of the first round (picks 1-32) and bet $10. Each and every pick, each person must choose 1 player they believe will be drafted at that pick, and it cannot be the same player anyone else has chosen (aka they must all be unique). This represents any player who is not a label on the other 4 bowls.
Because it can be kind of hectic labeling the bowls in between picks, it’s recommended that you rotate labeling responsibilities every 5 picks, so everyone has time to enjoy the draft.
It’s also recommended to find a list of the top 50 players in the draft and use that to pre-create some labels, so you don’t have to write down names during the draft.
To deter any cheating or foul play, it’s best if all bets are placed as soon as possible, that all contestants stay off of Twitter, and that no bets may be changed after a certain time (like less than 2 minutes left on clock).
On a fireplace, hutch, or other surface near the TV, place 5 bowls.
Wide Receivers drafted in round 1 OR Pick number at which first Wide Receiver is drafted.
The number of the first pick traded OR the number at which the first Running Back is selected.
Number of trades in the top 10 picks of round 1 OR number of trades in the bottom 10 picks of round 1.
University of Florida players drafted in round 1 OR Pac 10 players drafted in round 1.
Game 3: Mock Drafts
Mock drafts are getting more and more popular and easier to do all the time with sites like ESPN and WalterFootball.com providing tools to create mock drafts. The premise is simple: given 2 scenarios which will result in a number, which scenario will produce a larger number. Doing any or all of the following games or activities is a great way to stay invested in each and every pick and keep the energy level high.
Game 1: Betting Bowls
Game 2: Prop Bets
With this game, brainstorming the bets and categories is almost as much fun as choosing the bets and watching them unfold live. For example: “Which will be higher: Number of Linebackers drafted in round 1, or number of players selected from Florida colleges in round 1?”
For each pick in the draft, tape 1 name below each bowl, to give a total of 5 names for each and every pick.
Before each pick, each person in the room places $1 in the bowl of the player they think will be drafted.
The person who correctly guesses the drafted player wins all the money in the bowls.
What About Trades?
If a pick is traded, everyone may remove their dollar bet and, after the bowls are re-labeled (if necessary), change their bet to a new player.
What About Ties?
If 2 or more people select the same player and are correct, all of the money goes into a specially labeled side pot. Of those people, the next person to win gets all the money in the bowls and all the relevant pots
“But I think it will take five or more years before we see that really happen. Meanwhile, smaller upstarts like Skillz are taking advantage of the larger skill-based gaming field.
Skillz hopes that widespread pickup of skill-based betting “may be a precursor to [gambling on] games of chance,” Paradise said. It took a lot of work to get to this point, but now that it’s here I just don’t see it stopping.”
As of now, both gambling and 12bet betting apps have to tiptoe the divergent laws currently on the books.
Globally, it’s huge: Analysis firm Juniper Research estimates that gambling on mobile devices will hit $100 billion worldwide by 2017.
Related story: The hottest trend in games? Free
Some use the “predominance test,” which says that if a skilled player beats an unskilled competitor at least 75% of the time, that’s a game of skill. Chess is considered a game of skill, for example, while a slot machine is a game of chance.
Ultimate Gaming’s co-founder Tom Breitling said he thinks online poker will spread through the United States in one of two ways: Either federal legislation will legalize poker specifically and give states the right to opt out, or games-of-chance legislation will slowly be passed in the majority of states.
The U.S. skill: Some games are easy to classify. gambling industry wants to legalize online chance games across the country, and its lobbying efforts are gaining some momentum. “And it could be so much bigger. In a case last year, a federal judge in New York ruled that poker is skill-based, adding another wrinkle to the state-by-state differences.
Currently, 37 U.S. It’s one of the biggest discussions in the industry.”
Today, the only legal online poker service is the Las Vegas-based Ultimate Gaming, which launched UltimatePoker.com exclusively for Nevada residents in April. A “material element” test discovers whether chance is an important component in determining the outcome of a game. betting platform for skill-based mobile games in April and partnered with Glu Mobile (GLUU) in May. states allow online betting on games that require at least a moderate degree of “skill.” Only three states — Nevada, Delaware and New Jersey — have legalized gambling on games of “chance,” which, under the law, includes poker.
The poker problem: The No. “The determination can be confusing between games and between states, both for players and companies. But the business opportunity is big.”
CNNMoney (New York) June 10, 2013: 10:22 AM ET
“We’re focusing on poker right now, but online gambling is a lot bigger than just that,” Breitling said. 1 most-debated issue in the field, however, is the Big Kahuna of online gambling — poker.
But the road to change is murky: The rules vary by state, and they’re dependent on the very specific legal definitions of “gambling” versus “betting.”. That means residents of 47 states can’t play them online for money.
Poker is generally considered a game of chance under the law, but that determination is hotly debated. The third test figures out whether a game requires a player to bet on his or her own ability to win a game (games of skill do, but games of chance don’t).
But some are less clear cut: Despite rewarding skill, both poker and blackjack are considered games of chance.
The delineation can get squishy, and states use a handful of tests to help them classify, according to Paradise, the Skillz CEO. But the states still vary on which tests they use, and how they interpret the results — for example, some states say any degree of luck makes a game “chance-based,” while others allow some bit of chance in what they deem skill-based games.
Games of chance vs. New Jersey officials didn’t reply to a request for comment on where its online poker plans stand, and Delaware Lottery director Vernon Kirk said his state hopes eventually to cut deals for its residents to play against people in other states.
“The game-of-skill space has not been very well understood,” said Andrew Paradise, the CEO and founder of Skillz, which launched a U.S
Be excited and accomplish new things online. In short, success is freaking possible. Oh come on, even Google do some periodic maintenance folks. Good luck!
Google Adsense – you must have a blog site / website first to be approved
Why should I work with Examiner?
Because millions of people visit this site everyday plus it’s an awesome experience to earn money by writing online plus you get to donate to charities. Just amazing!
Work online with Nuffnang
Bottom line of a successful online job and working from home, you have to learn the right ways to work online. Please bear in mind, your articles and blogs are 100% original.
The secret of being successful working online is the same as the secret of being successful to anything you want to accomplish and aim. It’s so exciting to be working with Nuffnang because there are lots of rewards and exciting freebies every day. Many work at home freelancers, part time or full time receive hundreds of dollars every month. There’s no shortcut in getting the gold. Read on…
Why should I work with Nuffnang?
How to work with Nuffnang and earn money online?
Because, they pay in dollars and in euro, the community is friendly, the website is awesome and I love writing unlimited topics. Your articles can earn as much as they’re hot and as long as they’re in the net…which is forever probably. You can write and publish. Like for example, you love to write about travelling the Philippines, you’ll be known as an online traveler in the site. I recommend this to those who don’t know HTML and website creation. That’s it, you publish and earn money. It doesn’t mean, do it everyday. You can upload your own photos and videos and start earning. There are those MLM, (what that stands for again?) PPC or pay per click, survey jobs, data entry, and other too-good-to-be true tasks and recruitment strategies networking and those red big letters websites catching millions of people who don’t know enough and much of what is legitimate work from home and not. If you really love writing and blogging, this would be cool for you. Once approved, you’re now an examiner. You just have to enjoy what you sow and take care of it until it became a tree and multiply its fruits. Who knows? But I made this article to let everyone knows the best and genuine online jobs in the net today. Yup, no freaking website or blog site. All m88 affiliates and companies here are reputable, trusted and real. It’s an awesome website to publish your original creation, in any media format for the whole world to see. Majority of the list are writing jobs and publishing jobs online for everyone.
Why should I work with Squidoo?
The best online jobs and legitimate work from home jobs in the Philippines with no fees are listed in this hub. Page impressions are split 60:40, 60 % to you and 40% to them. Some examiners trends from “pop culture examiner” “nightlife examiner” “model car examiner” yup, those sorts…BTW you can also earn money by being an affiliate and recruit a successful examiner. Thank you.
Work with Squidoo
Work online with Hubpages
Nuffnang is the first advertising company in Asia Pacific to start its affiliate way of letting bloggers in the pacific to advertise ads in their blogs and website to earn money.
Simple, sign up to Triond.com, create original and quality content in any media format, then they publish your creation to their various publishing website networks that best suits your content -be it poetry, music, sports, photography, travel, health and much more. And I can build a portfolio from numerous reads and recognition.
Earn Online – Work Online
How to work with Hubpages and earn money online?
working online could give you this money
Online Jobs, Secret of Successful Work from Home
Because I can use my own dialect in writing, I can earn big bucks, receive gadgets other rewards and I can interact with fellow bloggers in Asia.
You can earn by having a blog site and displaying Nuffnang ads. The more you publish, the more the chance of earning of course.
Why should I work with Hubpages?
The following online jobs website in my list are legit online jobs and are popular globally. And again you have to enjoy and take care what you reap.
Why should I work with Triond?
*I’m in the moment into creating an article about Nuffnang and the step by step way to work with them so hang on for a while. Ok so maybe there are few who are legit. (in this case, me?) LOL
How to work with Squidoo and earn money online?
Be an affiliate of these companies and start making money online: these are all FREE
Amazon – a website is recommended, too but not necessary by working in some sites mentioned above.
eBay – a website is recommended, too but not necessary by working in some sites mentioned above.
Squidoo is another famous publishing platform and community online and another marvelous way to write online and get paid. Too bad some are promising thousands of dollars for Filipinos who want to work online. ;p
examiner.com a great way to earn onilne
Just sign up at Squidoo.com and start making lenses (articles) you’re interested with.
Examiner.com is the inside source for everything local. It’s another site to write, publish and be known. Yup, this is updated. Yup, they allow Nuffnangers (bloggers) to use languages other than English. Second, you have to love your work and enjoy it. Like if you wanna be successful in any career, you have to gain knowledge and work hard to achieve it. Getting approved takes only few minutes unless of course you already have an existing blog site or website. You can write almost anything, especially according to your expertise and what you know. Real work requires work not money.
First, apply by going to their website. All you have to do is publish whatever in accordance with their terms. If you wanna marry the girl of your dreams, you have to keep your love and relationship alive and exciting. In just one site, you can earn huge money by being an affiliate with Google Adsense, Amazon, eBay and Kontera. And you can have your blog site or websites to run in your dialect. It’s another brilliant online writing job. Oh my lenses! Work at home jobs aren’t totally boring.
The Best Online Jobs to Work at Home for Free in the Philippines
Because you can talk about anything about your place. Well, now you can. Writing online has never been that exciting! Boring is so out in the blogosphere. How cool is that! What I love about Hubpages is their so easy publishing tools and widgets. Once approved you can earn money by publishing hubs (articles) that are 100% original and are in accordance with their terms and policies. Third, be updated and replenish every task you have made. Then tell about your experience and submit a writing sample. To work at home while receiving rewarding salaries and doing things you’re interested with has never been this possible. Working in the internet and online, doing data entry, writing jobs, virtual assistant and more…without paying fees at all.
Are you in the Philippines and wanna work online? The following websites are legitimate to give you rewarding income monthly in dollars, without spending a penny in signing up. Revenues are split 50:50 and can be paid via Paypal, check or Western Union.
Triond is another amazing wok-at-home online community. It’s not only a splendid way to earn money but to gain recognition as well.
See all 3 photos
First, you have to be an affiliate of either Amazon, eBay , Kontera and Google Adsense. Become an affiliate of companies they allow in Squidoo. Plus their community is so friendly and warm. I’d like to emphasize that, REAL! And all of them requires no fees or investment in joining. Getting sick of it and getting lame of it means getting another job. Nuffnang is a very friendly, rewarding and enthusiastic company to be affiliated with. Lastly, keep your feet on the ground and thank the Lord and the people who have helped you be where you wanna be. Being an ‘examiner’ you get to write and build your own brand. Others receive thousands of dollars and it’s freaking growing rapidly. You can establish a unique brand / niche for that matter.
Hubpages is another cool online community to be working with. Sign up to Hubpages here.
Work with Triond
Work online with Examiner.com
Because I can’t only publish through writing, I can also submit videos, music, and photos. Revenue split is 50:50.As of October 2010, Squidoo is one of the 100 most popular websites in the US and more than one million people worldwide visit Squidoo website everyday. You just have to be updated and be aware of everything. Then sign up to Hubpages. That is after you have been approved by them. Working online at home writing has never been this cool!
How to work with Examiner and earn money online?
How to work with Triond and earn money online?
Kontera – a website is recommended, Kontera can work with Hubpages
Ok, so I know there are thousands of jobs opportunities in the internet but majority are craps. It’s so simple that you don’t even need your own website. Just lovely!. Ads are displayed on your lenses (articles) and you get paid via affiliate programs like Amazon, eBay, CafePress and others. Like if you wanna lose weight, you have to really exercise and maintain a healthy diet
($1 = 7.7522 Hong Kong dollars) (Reporting by Clare Jim; Editing by Muralikumar Anantharaman)
HONG KONG Jan 23 (Reuters) – Casino firm fun88 Entertainment Group will invest at least HK$55 billion ($7.09 billion) more in its Macau integrated resort, bringing the total investment to HK$100 billion ($12.90 billion), chairman Lui Che Woo told reporters on Friday.
HONG KONG Thu Jan 22, 2015 11:11pm EST
. Macau is the world’s largest gaming destination. Galaxy announced the second phase of its Galaxy Macau integrated resort in 2012 as Beijing began pushing the southern territory to diversify its economy into culture, sports and retail
So ok, you know the risks, but how does it actually work? Let’s go back to the US election between Bush and that Herman Munster guy, the Democrat fella with the long face (Kerry? Curry?). Nothing wrong with that, you think? Not if the bet is 100% guaranteed? But what about if thru the vagaries of the internet, you manage to get one side of the bet on at the right odds, but not the other? You are left holding a LARGE position. Sometimes, the differences are deliberate. a US 1.5 – bet $800, return $2,000).
About The Author
This article was posted on February 10, 2005
Betting arbitrage is a method of creating a bet that has a zero risk – in other words, you always win m88! The concept of ‘arbitrage’ comes from the financial world, and describes the activities of traders who find two different places offering the same trade, but at different prices. It works even within the US too – a Varsity football match, for example, may find the out of state team offering you an opportunity to arbitrage within the home team state depending on the demographics of the customers using two US online bookies.
Back to “Recreation And Sports” Index
Mr Schultz is a writer for www.supabets.com bet site an archive of free tips and trix for betting fans, where he concentrates on sports betting rules.
The advent of online betting sites meant that the punter could suddenly check prices at a multitude of different locations very quickly, and open bets at those that had ‘slipped’ out of line. Whatever happens to price, they make a profit on the difference between the original 2 prices. The main problem is the size of the account you need to make a useful profit. No one knew for sure which way it would go. Are the odds always as good as in the example? No. Simply exploit the difference. Also, accounts of this size are viewed with some suspicion by the bookies – they will want to know that you aren’t (for example) money laundering.
A Bet You ALWAYS Win – How Sports Betting Arbitrage Works
by: Kevin Schultz
How often does this happen? Quite a lot. Each online betting site has to maintain it’s own ‘book’, and it would be a strange world indeed if they all had the same number of punters, all betting the same way and the same amount, meaning they all had to offer the same odds!
Generally, you can bet risk free on any sporting event with either 2 or 3 outcomes, such as Football, Baseball, Boxing, Basketball, Tennis, Soccer, Golf, Snooker, Cricket, Hockey, Ice Hockey and Darts. But what you could have done is put on a bet with UK bookie Coral that Kerry would win, and the odds they would give you would have been 6/4 (i.e.
So how does 100% winners, no risk sound? Groovy, huh? But there are, of course, problems. By exploiting the inefficiencies of some brokers, a win can therefore be guaranteed. They then exploit this difference by selling in one location and buying in the other. The same thing applies to betting arbitrage, typically on sporting events.
At the same time, your fave US bookie might have given you odds of 6/4 on Bush! That means if you took both bets, you are betting (risking) $1,600, but will win $2,000 WHATEVER the result! Easy money or what? Bank a cool $400 for nothing.
. For example, in a boxing match, the US champ will, of course be favored by the US bookies, but the UK challenger will be top bet at the UK bookies. The difference between the odds offered by 2 bookies, and exploited by an arbitrageur, may only amount to a fraction of a percent, meaning that you may have to wager several thousand dollars to win 5 bucks. Usually the difference will be small. As you recall, it was close
Determined to snap the longest championship drought in North American professional sports, Cubs general manager Theo Epstein kept busy in the offseason, signing outfielder Jason Heyward and starter John Lackey from division-rival St. Louis and adding super-utility player Ben Zobrist.
As Arizona Diamondback players report on Wednesday to Salt River Fields at Talking Stick, a half-hour drive from downtown Phoenix, the long-suffering Cubs are the unaccustomed, heavy 4-1 favorites to win the 2016 World Series.
Reigning MLB champions the Kansas City Royals did not make major additions but re-signed free agent outfielder Alex Gordon and brought in starter Ian Kennedy to compensate for the loss of Johnny Cueto, who signed a free agent deal with the Giants.
(Reporting by Larry Fine in New York; Editing by Frank Pingue)
The Boston Red Sox, AL East cellar dwellers in 2015, signed free agent starter David Price, who last year helped Toronto reach the postseason for the first time since 1993, and added closer Craig Kimbrel to rate a 12-1 choice with the Blue Jays.
With a roster full of young talent including sluggers Anthony Rizzo, Kris Bryant and Kyle Schwarber, and a pitching staff topped by Cy Young winner Jake Arrieta, the Cubs reached the NL Championship Series last year after posting the third best record in the majors.
Following the Cubs in preseason odds were the 2015 NL champion New York Mets and San Francisco Giants, both rated 8-1 choices to win the championship by online betting site Bovada.
The thaw from winter’s teeth-chattering cold is underway, perhaps most noticeably for eager Chicago Cubs fans with this week’s heartwarming arrival of pitchers and catchers at Major League Baseball spring training camps.
The Los Angeles Dodgers and Washington Nationals follow at 10-1, with the National League’s leading teams all priced ahead of the top American League choices.
The Cubs’ crosstown neighbors the White Sox beefed up their infield by dealing for second baseman Brett Lawrie and slugging third baseman Todd Frazier, while Detroit added starting pitcher Jordan Zimmermann and outfielder Justin Upton over the winter.
Kansas City were rated 16-1 choice to repeat, followed by the up-and-coming Houston Astros at 18-1 while the Yankees were a joint sixth pick at 22-1.
To offset the loss of Price, Toronto expect young starter Marcus Stroman to return from injury to pick up the slack and strong-armed young Aaron Sanchez might join him in the rotation.
Two other AL Central clubs made bold moves in hopes of challenging the Royals.
For the Cubs and their fans, it seems like an eternity since they ruled the baseball world having not won a World Series since 1908.
Among teams making offseason splashes were the Diamondbacks, who bolstered their rotation by signing free agent Zack Greinke away from the Los Angeles Dodgers and trading for Shelby Miller.
Hope springs eternal with the beginning of spring training in Arizona and Florida, with all teams gearing up to start all level when Major League Baseball’s marathon 162-game season opens in April.
The Lions traveled from New York City to New Brunswick on November 12, 1870 and were defeated by Rutgers 6 to 3. Notre Dame, one of the biggest passing teams of the decade, saw a substantial decline in success; the 1950s were the only decade between 1920 and 1990 when the team did not win at least a share of the national title. For the video game series, see NCAA Football series. In 1936, the Associated Press began its weekly poll of prominent sports writers, ranking all of the nation’s college football teams. Retrieved 2007-06-01.
^ Celizic, Mike (December 9, 2006). The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. McGill
After the Bowl Championship Series, additional all-star bowl games round out the post-season schedule through the beginning of February.
January 30, 1892 saw the first football game played in the Deep South when the Georgia Bulldogs defeated Mercer 50-0 at Herty Field.
Several major modern college football conferences rose to prominence during this time period. Without the Pac-10/Big Ten team bound to a bowl game, it would be difficult to decide which two teams should play for the national title.
Map of NJCAA
Harvard vs. Schaff himself was injured and unable to the play the game, but Yale won the game 3-0 nonetheless. Harts had left to prospect for gold in the Arctic. Organized football was first played in the territory on November 29, 1894 between the Oklahoma City Terrors and Oklahoma City High School. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
Professional Football Researchers Association. At the first The Game (as the annual contest between Harvard and Yale came to be named) the future “father of American football” Walter Camp was among the 2000 spectators in attendance. This opened up the BCS to two additional at-large teams. He is credited with being the first major coach to emphasize offense over defense. 2006. Retrieved December 27, 2011.
^ Sciullo Jr, Sam, ed. The University of Denver and the University of Utah joined the RMAC in 1910. In the first two seasons of the CFP, the Group of Five has yet to place a team in a semifinal. From 1980 to 2008, an additional 20 bowl games were added to the schedule. Some have criticized this growth, claiming that the increased number of games has diluted the significance of playing in a bowl game. Retrieved 2007-05-19.
^ Vancil (2000), pp 16
^ Men’s Intercollegiate Athletic Department of the University of Minnesota (1981). He led his team to an impressive 105-12-5 record before his premature death in a plane crash in 1931. NFL Enterprises LLC. Several times in 1883, Camp tinkered with the scoring rules, finally arriving at four points for a touchdown, two points for kicks after touchdowns, two points for safeties, and five for field goals. It was agreed that the No.1 and No.2 ranked teams gave up their prior bowl tie-ins and were guaranteed to meet in the national championship game, which rotated between the three participating bowls. Mcgill.ca. The first game was played on San Francisco’s Haight Street Grounds on March 19, 1892 with Stanford winning 14-10. NCAA.com. “The Evolution of School Spirit and Tradition at Oregon State University” (PDF). The Panthers, led by freshman Tom Davies, defeated Georgia Tech 32 to 0. In the NFL, the same foul would result in a penalty on the conversion attempt or ensuing kickoff, at the option of the non-penalized team.
If a team is penalized in the final minute of a half and the penalty causes the clock to stop, the opposing team now has the right to have 10 seconds run off the clock in addition to the yardage penalty. Retrieved 2007-05-31.
^ a b MacCambridge (1999), pp 148
^ Vancil (2000), pp 30
^ Vancil (2000), pp 28-30
^ “A Brief History of the Heisman Trophy”. Joseph M. The series included the four most prominent bowl games (Rose Bowl, Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl, Fiesta Bowl), while the National Championship game rotated each year between one of these venues. British Columbia Rugby Union. Between 1890 and 1905, 330 college athletes died as a direct result of injuries sustained on the football field. Kansas Historical Quarterly. Doc Blanchard (known as “Mr. Ralph Turtinen, ed. Committee Urges Football Playoff”. The game features prominently in Vanderbilt’s history. That same year, Alabama upset Penn 9 to 7.
College Football Playoff
Main article: College Football Playoff
The University of Southern California first fielded an American football team in 1888. Known as the “Iron Men”, with just 13 men they had a six-day road trip with five shutout wins over Texas A&M; Texas; Tulane; LSU; and Ole Miss. The New York Times. By the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport later known as Rugby football. The Bowl Subdivision has historically not used an organized tournament to determine its champion, and instead teams compete in post-season bowl games. (Only two stadiums owned by U.S. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
^ McCann, Michael C. Stanford: Home of Champions. “Too many bowl games? Nonsense”. Davis described the period between 1869 and 1875 as the ‘Pioneer Period'; the years 1876-93 he called the ‘Period of the American Intercollegiate Football Association'; and the years 1894-1933 he dubbed the ‘Period of Rules Committees and Conferences’.
Bronko Nagurski Trophy
Dick Butkus Award
Jim Thorpe Award
Doak Walker Award
Johnny Unitas Golden Arm Award
Home Depot Award
Ray Guy Award
John Mackey Award
The first documented gridiron football match was a game played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9, 1861. A player could carry the ball only when being pursued.
On September 27, 1902, Georgetown beat Navy 4 to 0. Archived from the original on April 30, 2007. Davis. 2007. Its result was “a great surprise to the sporting world.” Commodore fans celebrated by throwing some 3,000 seat cushions onto the field. Four new bowl games were created: the Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl, the Sun Bowl in 1935, and the Cotton Bowl in 1937. Retrieved 2007-05-15.
^ Vancil (2000) pp 24
^ “Marching Band History”. Rutgers won by a score of six to four. In 1966, rugby league introduced a four-tackle rule (changed in 1972 to a six-tackle rule) based on Camp’s early down-and-distance rules.
Map of NAIA
Penn’s Athletic Association was looking to pick “a twenty” to play a game of football against Columbia. Louis Post-Dispatch photograph of Brad Robinson, who threw the first legal forward pass and was the sport’s first triple threat
10 College football outside the United States
12 See also
14 Further notes
15 External links
Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Minnesota on September 30, 1882 when Hamline was convinced to play Minnesota. “Section 11–Extra Points.” 2008 Football Statisticians’ Manual. For example, the Big Eight and SEC champions could never meet, since they were contractually bound to different bowl games. Division I generally consists of the major collegiate athletic powers with larger budgets, more elaborate facilities, and (with the exception of a few conferences such as the Pioneer Football League) more athletic scholarships. The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. Another rule, unique to McGill, was to count tries (the act of grounding the football past the opposing team’s goal line; it is important to note that there was no end zone during this time), as well as goals, in the scoring. The team also played exhibition games against two Los Angeles area teams that Stanford does not include in official results. Camp returned to the East Coast following the season, then returned to coach Stanford in 1894 and 1895.
Charles William Eliot, President of Harvard University (1869-1909) opposing football in 1905.
Hall of Champions
Colorado’s First football team in 1890.
It is thought that the first forward pass in football occurred on October 26, 1895 in a game between Georgia and North Carolina when, out of desperation, the ball was thrown by the North Carolina back Joel Whitaker instead of punted and George Stephens caught the ball. On November 9, 1895 John Heisman executed a hidden ball trick utilizing quarterback Reynolds Tichenor to get Auburn’s only touchdown in a 6 to 9 loss to Vanderbilt. In 1914, the first roughing-the-passer penalty was implemented. Retrieved 2007-06-01.
^ “Kickoffs from 30 yard line could create more returns, injuries”. Archived from the original on June 24, 2007. Players who became famous for taking advantage of the easier passing game included Alabama end Don Hutson and TCU passer “Slingin” Sammy Baugh.
Inasmuch as Rugby football had been transplanted to Canada from England, the McGill team played under a set of rules which allowed a player to pick up the ball and run with it whenever he wished. Atlanta Constitution. “Tiny Maxwell and the Crisis of 1905: The Making of a Gridiron Myth” (PDF). Atlanta Constitution. These deaths could be attributed to the mass formations and gang tackling that characterized the sport in its early years.
– John C. Retrieved March 27, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. p. 12.
^ a b Ray Soldan (September 11, 1994). The IAAUS would get its current name of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in 1910, which still sets rules governing the sport.
The first bowl game was the 1902 Rose Bowl, played between Michigan and Stanford; Michigan won 49-0. 201-209.
^ “Intercollegiate Football: The U.S.C. Rutgers Through The Years. Must Allow Colleges to Pay Athletes, Judge Rules”, New York Times, August 8, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/09/sports/federal-judge-rules-against-ncaa-in-obannon-case.html
Following the introduction of rugby-style rules to American football, Camp became a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where rules were debated and changed. The Wolverines: A Story of Michigan Football. The Oklahoma Football Encyclopedia: 2nd Edition. The game between West Virginia and Pittsburgh on October 8, 1921, saw the first live radio broadcast of a college football game when Harold W. To Whittemore’s surprise, Camp agreed to coach the team himself, on the condition that he finish the season at Yale first. As a result of Camp’s late arrival, Stanford played just three official games, against San Francisco’s Olympic Club and rival California. For its first thirty years, the RMAC was considered a major conference equivalent to today’s Division I, before 7 larger members left and formed the Mountain States Conference (also called the Skyline Conference).
College football is a controversial institution within American higher education, where the amount of money involved–what people will pay for the entertainment provided–is a corrupting factor within universities that they are usually ill-equipped to deal with. According to William E. The Walter Camp Football Foundation continues to select All-American teams in his honor.
A pass is ruled complete if one of the receiver’s feet is inbounds at the time of the catch. Nixon (1898-12-16). The next year in 1901, Yost was hired by Charles A. The American retained the Big East’s automatic BCS bowl bid for the 2013 season, but lost this status in the CFP era.
As it grew beyond its regional affiliations in the 1930s, college football garnered increased national attention. The Kingsport Times. Leggett, based on the Football Association’s first set of rules, which were an early attempt by the former pupils of England’s public schools, to unify the rules of their public schools games and create a universal and standardized set of rules for the game of football and bore little resemblance to the American game which would be developed in the following decades. In the Rugby rules of the time, a try only provided the attempt to kick a free goal from the field. 11 (3): 33.
^ Goldsmith, A. Baird as the head football coach for the Michigan Wolverines football team. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
^ Greg Roza, Football in the SEC (Southeastern Conference), p. pp. 11-13. Big Ten Conference – Official Athletic Site – Traditions. In 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed the Bloody Monday had to go. The Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called “Football Fightum”, for whom they conducted funeral rites. College Football Historical Society. Retrieved 2007-05-15.
^ “1800s”. Though some schools play a run-based version of the spread, its most common use is as a passing offense designed to “spread” the field both horizontally and vertically. Some teams have managed to adapt with the times to keep winning consistently. being afflicted with a super-abundance of penned up energy, or perhaps having recently drifted from under the parental wing and delighting in their newly found freedom, decided among other wild schemes, to form an athletic association. 2007. Atlanta, Ga.: Whitman Publishing, LLC. Division II primarily consists of smaller public and private institutions that offer fewer scholarships than those in Division I. (1916-10-15). Washington and Lee won 4-2. Some industrious students of the two schools organized a game for October 23, 1869 – but it was rained out. Students of the University of Virginia were playing pickup games of the kicking-style of football as early as 1870, and some accounts even claim it organized a game against Washington and Lee College in 1871; but no record has been found of the score of this contest. The NFL has a similar rule in the final minute of the half, but it applies only to specified violations against the offensive team. Pennsylvania”. The resultant collisions often led to serious injuries and sometimes even death. Georgia fullback Richard Von Albade Gammon notably died on the field from concussions received against Virginia in 1897, causing Georgia, Georgia Tech, and Mercer to suspend their football programs.
On April 9, 1880 at Stoll Field, Transylvania University (then called Kentucky University) beat Centre College by the score of 13¾-0 in what is often considered the first recorded game played in the South. The first game of “scientific football” in the South was the first instance of the Victory Bell rivalry between North Carolina and Duke (then known as Trinity College) held on Thanksgiving Day, 1888, at the North Carolina State Fairgrounds in Raleigh, North Carolina.
Main articles: Bowl game and List of college bowl games
Map of Division I (A) FBS
The beginnings of the contemporary Southeastern Conference and Atlantic Coast Conference start in 1894. Later in 1870, Princeton and Rutgers played again with Princeton defeating Rutgers 6-0. dartmo.com. Stanford played its 1915, 1916, and 1917 “Big Games” as rugby union against Santa Clara and California’s football “Big Game” in those years was against Washington, but both schools desired to restore the old traditions. The onset of American involvement in World War I gave Stanford an out: in 1918, the Stanford campus was designated as the Students’ Army Training Corps headquarters for all of California, Nevada, and Utah, and the commanding officer, Sam M. Also in 1887, two paid officials–a referee and an umpire–were mandated for each game. Baker beat Kansas 22-9. On the 27th, Vanderbilt played Nashville (Peabody) at Athletic Park and won 40-0. Consequently, Stanford is USC’s oldest existing rival. The Big Game between Stanford and Cal on November 11, 1905 was the first played at Stanford Field, with Stanford winning 12-5.
Vanderbilt’s line coach then was Wallace Wade, who in 1925 coached Alabama to the south’s first Rose Bowl victory. Michigan coach Fielding Yost and Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin were brothers-in-law, and the latter the protege of the former. “The Birth of OSU Football”. Before they were nicknamed the “Trojans”, they were known as the USC Methodists.
The first game where one team scored over 100 points happened on October 25, 1884 when Yale routed Dartmouth 113-0. Retrieved 2007-03-21. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
^ “100 years ago: Football fans enjoy mechanized reproduction of KU-MU game”. Starting with the third overtime, a one-point PAT field goal after a touchdown is no longer allowed, forcing teams to attempt a two-point conversion after a touchdown. Princeton University students played a game called “ballown” as early as 1820. The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. Royal went on to teach the offense to other coaches, including Bear Bryant at Alabama, Chuck Fairbanks at Oklahoma and Pepper Rodgers at UCLA; who all adapted and developed it to their own tastes. The strategic opposite of the wishbone is the spread offense, developed by professional and college coaches throughout the 1960s and 1970s. Although the NCAA publishes lists of claimed FBS-level national champions in its official publications, it has never recognized an official FBS national championship; this policy continues even after the establishment of the College Football Playoff (which is not directly run by the NCAA) in 2014. For the current season of Bowl Subdivision play, see 2016 NCAA Division I FBS football season. The Anatomy of a Game. Georgia Tech, led by Heisman protege William Alexander, gave the dream and wonder team its only loss, and the next year were national and Rose Bowl champions. A rematch was played at Princeton a week later under Princeton’s own set of rules (one notable difference was the awarding of a “free kick” to any player that caught the ball on the fly, which was a feature adopted from the Football Association’s rules; the fair catch kick rule has survived through to modern American game). Retrieved 2007-05-19.
^ Vancil (2000), pp 20
^ “WorldCat entry for Football for Coaches and Players”.
^ a b “Brown Calls Vanderbilt ’06 Best Eleven South Ever Had”. On June 4, 1875, Harvard faced Tufts University in the first game between two American colleges played under rules similar to the McGill/Harvard contest, which was won by Tufts. The rules included each side fielding 11 men at any given time, the ball was advanced by kicking or carrying it, and tackles of the ball carrier stopped play.
On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University (then known as the College of New Jersey) in the first-ever game of intercollegiate football. Overtime for regular season games in the NFL began with the 1974 season. PMID 4903389.
^ Watterson, John (2001). The undefeated 1904 Vanderbilt team scored an average of 52.7 points per game, the most in college football that season, and allowed just four points.
Further elated by the excitement of McGill’s version of football, Harvard challenged its closest rival, Yale, to which the Bulldogs accepted. The BCS system was slightly adjusted in 2006, as the NCAA added a fifth game to the series, called the National Championship Game. The man with the ball could be tackled, although hitting, tripping, “hacking” (shin-kicking) and other unnecessary roughness was prohibited. Yost, Michigan became the first “western” national power. “Sports and Freedom: The Rise of Big-Time College Athletics”, New York: Oxford University Press, 1988
^ Infamous 1874 McGill-Harvard game turns 132 at McGill Athletics, published by McGill University (no further authorship information available). 2006-2007 Texas Almanac. John Roberts.
^ Robin Lester (Summer 1991). Retrieved 2009-10-11.
The National Collegiate Athletic Association. NFL.com. “Southeastern Conference”. The WAC, after seeing all but two of its football members leave, dropped football after the 2012 season. A year later, the rules were changed to allow tackling below the waist, and in 1889, the officials were given whistles and stopwatches.
Map of NCAA Division III
College teams mostly play other similarly sized schools through the NCAA’s divisional system. The rules that they agreed upon were essentially those of rugby union at the time with the exception that points be awarded for scoring a try, not just the conversion afterwards (extra point). Other games came along and used the term “bowl”, whether the stadium was shaped like a bowl or not.
Camp was central to several more significant rule changes that came to define American football. Dartmouth played its own version called “Old division football”, the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s. Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. In the NFL the clock does not explicitly stop for a first down.
Overtime was introduced in 1996, eliminating ties. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
^ Jim L. It was during Rockne’s tenure that the annual Notre Dame-University of Southern California rivalry began. Wilkinson and Hayes, along with Robert Neyland of Tennessee, oversaw a revival of the running game in the 1950s. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
^ White, Gordon (January 8, 1979). p. 52. It was agreed that two games would be played on Harvard’s Jarvis baseball field in Cambridge, Massachusetts on May 14 and 15, 1874: one to be played under Harvard rules, another under the stricter rugby regulations of McGill. On November 25, 1911 Kansas and Missouri played the first homecoming football game. The game was “broadcast” play-by-play over telegraph to at least 1,000 fans in Lawrence, Kansas. It ended in a 3-3 tie. By next season, Oklahoma coach John A. Football’s Greatest Coaches. Lincoln Evening Journal. Thus, only Division I wins (whether FBS, FCS, or FCS non-scholarship) are considered for playoff selection.
^ “Football Squads Begin practice”. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2012.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to College football.
Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Florida in 1901. A 7-game series between intramural teams from Stetson and Forbes occurred in 1894. Notre Dame remains a football independent, but is counted among the Power Five because of its full but non-football ACC membership, including a football scheduling alliance with that conference. Since there was no national championship game, the final version of the AP poll was used to determine who was crowned the National Champion of college football.
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Division I sports
Swimming & Diving
Sewanee’s 1899 “Iron Men.”
On December 14, 1889, Wofford defeated Furman 5 to 1 in the first intercollegiate game in the state of South Carolina. It appears here in its original form:
In 1906, citing concerns about the violence in American Football, universities on the West Coast, led by California and Stanford, replaced the sport with rugby union. At the time, the future of American football was very much in doubt and these schools believed that rugby union would eventually be adopted nationwide. Other schools fllowed suit and also made the switch included Nevada, St. “Two-point conversion turns 50.” The NCAA News. “Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association Foot Ball”. The Official National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Guide. reprinted from Official Super Bowl XXXIII Game Program.
^ Vancil (2000) pp 46-48
^ Vancil (2000), pp 56
^ Bennett (1976), Appendix pp 209-217
^ a b Call, Jeff (December 20, 2006). There has been serious discussion about making student-athletes university employees to allow them to be paid.
Teams in each of these four divisions are further divided into various regional conferences.
The longtime resistance to a playoff system at the FBS level finally ended with the creation of the College Football Playoff (CFP) beginning with the 2014 season. Clemson, Cumberland, Kentucky, LSU, Mercer, Mississippi, Mississippi A&M (Mississippi State), Southwestern Presbyterian University, Tennessee, Texas, Tulane, and the University of Nashville joined the following year in 1895 as invited charter members. The conference was originally formed for “the development and purification of college athletics throughout the South”.
A college football game between Texas Tech and Navy
Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as “football”, played at public schools in England in the mid-19th century. 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-17.
^ “NCAA Football Rules Committee Votes To Restore Plays While Attempting To Maintain Shorter Overall Game Time”. Nixon, also the school’s second captain. Retrieved February 9, 2015.
^ Melvin I. “Why California Likes Rugby”. The next year Vanderbilt fought Michigan to a scoreless tie at the inaugural game at Dudley Field (now Vanderbilt Stadium), the first stadium in the South made exclusively for college football. Jarvis Field was at the time a patch of land at the northern point of the Harvard campus, bordered by Everett and Jarvis Streets to the north and south, and Oxford Street and Massachusetts Avenue to the east and west. Retrieved 2007-05-16.
^ “Notre Dame Football :: UND.COM :: The Official Site of Notre Dame Athletics”. The Southwest Athletic Conference had been founded in 1915. National Collegiate Athletic Association. On October 12, 1929, Yale lost to Georgia in Sanford Stadium in its first trip to the south. As reasons for the change, the school cited rule change back to American football, the overwhelming desire of students and supporters to play American football, interest in playing other East Coast and Midwest schools, and a patriotic desire to play an “American” game. California’s return to American football increased the pressure on Stanford to also change back in order to maintain the rivalry. Retrieved 2008-04-06.
^ Vancil (2000), pp 19-22
^ Vancil (2000), pp 24-29
^ a b c MacCambridge (1999), pp 124
^ “A Look Back at the Southwest Conference”. Other important changes, formally adopted in 1910, were the requirements that at least seven offensive players be on the line of scrimmage at the time of the snap, that there be no pushing or pulling, and that interlocking interference (arms linked or hands on belts and uniforms) was not allowed. Retrieved March 8, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. College Football Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2010-01-26.
^ “The History of Walter Camp”. As a result of this meeting, the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States was formed in 1906. The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded non-university football club in Canada.
A college that fields a team in the NCAA is not restricted from fielding teams in club or sprint football, and several colleges field two teams, a varsity (NCAA) squad and a club or sprint squad (no schools, as of 2015, field both club and sprint teams at the same time).
Track and Field
Men’s indoor and outdoor
Women’s indoor and outdoor
The first college football game in Oklahoma Territory occurred on November 7, 1895 when the ‘Oklahoma City Terrors’ defeated the Oklahoma Sooners 34 to 0. It took place at Hamilton Park in New Haven and was the first game in New England. Rockne returned to coach the team in 1918, and devised the powerful Notre Dame Box offense, based on Warner’s single wing. Lawrence Journal-World. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. If the kick was missed, the try did not score any points itself.
Main article: 1869 college football season
Tom Davies runs against undefeated and unscored upon Georgia Tech in the 1918 game at Forbes Field.
The system continued to change, as the formula for ranking teams was tweaked from year to year. Church took over the coaching position in the fall for the rest of the season. For the first time, it included all major conferences (ACC, Big East, Big 12, Big Ten, Pac-10, and SEC) and four major bowl games (Rose, Orange, Sugar and Fiesta). “Princeton Yearly Results (1880-1884)”. Though it was underutilized for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game. Another rule change banned “mass momentum” plays (many of which, like the infamous “flying wedge”, were sometimes literally deadly).
Walter Camp: Father of American football
The BCS selection committee used a complicated, and often controversial, computer system to rank all Division 1-FBS teams and the top two teams at the end of the season played for the National Championship. From Maverick to Mainstream: Cumberland School of Law, 1847-1997. Before this meeting, each school had its own set of rules and games were usually played using the home team’s own particular code. “Teddy Roosevelt’s Role in the 1905 Football Controversy”. Under the current playoff structure, the top eight teams are all seeded, and receive a bye week in the first round. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
^ a b c Bennett (1976), pp 20-21
^ “ESPN.com: Top N. A violation will be a 5-yard penalty.
A college football game between Colorado State and Air Force
FCS. Passing numbers dropped from an average of 18.9 attempts in 1951 to 13.6 attempts in 1955, while teams averaged just shy of 50 running plays per game. College Football Data Warehouse. It also had the first two players from the Deep South selected first-team All-American in Walker Carpenter and Everett Strupper. Throwing or carrying the ball was not allowed, but there was plenty of physical contact between players. The trophy was designed by sculptor Frank Eliscu and modeled after New York University player Ed Smith. p. 95.
^ Ray Dozier. The first of these happened on November 11, 1876 in Philadelphia and was the first intercollegiate game in the state of Pennsylvania.
Historical college football scoring
Note: For brief periods in the late 19th century, some penalties awarded one or more points for the opposing teams, and some teams in the late 19th and early 20th centuries chose to negotiate their own scoring system for individual games.
Camp’s new scrimmage rules revolutionized the game, though not always as intended. Nine out of ten Heisman Trophy winners in the 1950s were runners. Modern Canadian football is widely regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians. Current Events, 00113492, 11/14/2011, Vol. The Strode Publishers. Eugene, Oregon: McCann Communications Corp. Kicked tries count as one point. Two teams of 25 players attempted to score by kicking the ball into the opposing team’s goal. Though he lectured on eliminating and reducing injuries, he never threatened to ban football. The try would later evolve into the score known as the touchdown. of C. The U of C should henceforth lead the state and possibly the west in athletic sports.
Football teams in Division I are further divided into the Bowl Subdivision (consisting of the largest programs) and the Championship Subdivision. Emory Bellard, an assistant coach under Darrell Royal at the University of Texas, developed a three-back option style offense known as the wishbone. In 2009, Boise State played TCU in the Fiesta Bowl, the first time two schools from non-BCS conferences played each other in a BCS bowl game. The champions of these six conferences, along with two “at-large” selections, were invited to play in the four bowl games. They decided to play with 15 players on each team. Ingrassia, The Rise of Gridiron University: Higher Education’s Uneasy Alliance with Big-Time Football. Football came back in 1872, when Columbia played Yale for the first time. Archived from the original on October 31, 2009. This allows them to seat more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium, which tends to have more features and comforts for fans. Warner picked up the trick and later used it at Cornell against Penn State in 1897. He then used it in 1903 at Carlisle against Harvard and garnered national attention.
The rules committee considered widening the playing field to “open up” the game, but Harvard Stadium (the first large permanent football stadium) had recently been built at great expense; it would be rendered useless by a wider field. An invitation was also extended to Los Angeles High School.
1.6.2 Coaches of the era
22.214.171.124 Glenn “Pop” Warner
126.96.36.199 Knute Rockne
The 1899 Sewanee Tigers are one of the all-time great teams of the early sport. Stanford: Home of Champions. Reeves had a crude leather helmet made by a shoemaker in Annapolis and wore it in the game after being warned by his doctor that he risked death if he continued to play football after suffering an earlier kick to the head.
Besides these coaching innovations, several rules changes during the first third of the 20th century had a profound impact on the game, mostly in opening up the passing game. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
“NFL History by Decade: 1869-1910.” National Football League. Outland held an experimental game in Wichita, Kansas that reduced the number of scrimmage plays to earn a first down from four to three in an attempt to reduce injuries. The Los Angeles Times reported an increase in punts and considered the game much safer than regular play but that the new rule was not “conducive to the sport”. In 1906, President Roosevelt organized a meeting among thirteen school leaders at the White House to find solutions to make the sport safer for the athletes. Six major bowl games (the Rose, Sugar, Cotton, Orange, Peach, and Fiesta) rotate on a three-year cycle as semifinal games, with the winners advancing to the College Football Playoff National Championship. The team leading after both possessions is declared the winner. Lawrence Daily Journal. The next season, with many players gone due to World War I, a game was finally scheduled at Forbes Field with Pittsburgh. When Heisman left Tech after 1919, his shift was still employed by protege William Alexander.
Started in the 2014 season, four Division I FBS teams are selected at the end of regular season to compete in a playoff for the FBS national championship. Georgia’s 1927 “dream and wonder team” defeated Yale for the first time. April 15, 2011. Heisman pressed hardest for Cumberland to get the claim of champion. Retrieved 2006-11-29.
^ “1872 Rutgers Scarlet Knights Schedule and Results”. LA 84 Foundation: 54-57. Football: The Ivy League Origins of an American Obsession. The team went 12-0, outscoring opponents 322 to 10. 111, Issue 8
Brian M. NCAA. Harvard University Sports Information Office. The two competing sanctioning bodies have some overlap, and several clubs are members of both organizations.
The Collegiate Sprint Football League governs nine teams, all in the northeast. These changes greatly reduced the potential for collision injuries. Several coaches emerged who took advantage of these sweeping changes. The Research Quarterly. Web.ebscohost.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu. Accessed March 11, 2015
^ Will Perry (1974). Retrieved 30 May 2012.
^ Edmonston Jr., George. Retrieved 2007-08-17.
^ “Series of rules changes approved”. Due to scantness of records of the prior matches some will claim Virginia v. Saperecom. Yale wins 3-0, Tommy Sherman scoring the first goal and Lew Irwin the other two.
Old “Football Fightum” had been resurrected at Harvard in 1872, when Harvard resumed playing football. If the teams remain tied, overtime periods continue, with a coin flip determining the first possession. However, both Group of Five teams selected for New Year’s Six bowls (Boise State in 2014 and Houston in 2015) won their games.
Official rules and notable rule distinctions
See also: American football rules
^ While Still the Nation’s Favorite Sport, Professional Football Drops in Popularity – Baseball and college football are next in popularity at the Harris Interactive website, accessed 28 January 2010.
^ “University of Florida Health Science Center Libraries” (PDF). November 7, 1886. Originally, the snap was executed with the foot of the center. Teams can also go for “the two-point conversion” which is when a team will line up at the three-yard line and try to score. Retrieved 2011-10-06.
^ Steven Salzberg, “Football is corrupting America’s universities: it needs to go”, Forbes, November 26, 2011, http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevensalzberg/2011/11/26/football-is-corrupting-americas-universities-it-needs-to-go/
^ Jay Schalin, “Time for universities to punt football”, Washington Times, September 1, 2011, http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2011/sep/1/time-for-universities-to-punt-football/?page=all
^ Laura Pappano, “How Big-Time Sports Ate College Life”, New York Times, January 20, 2012.
^ Jonah Newman, “Coaches, Not Presidents, Top Public-College Pay List”, Chronicle of Higher Education, May 16, 2014, http://chronicle.com/blogs/data/2014/05/16/coaches-not-presidents-top-public-college-pay-list/
^ One reference among many: Walt Bogdanich, “A Star Player Accused, and a Flawed Rape Investigation”, New York Times, April 16, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/04/16/sports/errors-in-inquiry-on-rape-allegations-against-fsu-jameis-winston.html
^ Gregg Doyel, “Time to pay college football players — changing times, money say so”, CBS Sports, September 25, 2013, http://www.cbssports.com/general/writer/gregg-doyel/23838595/its-time-pay-college-football-players—-changing-times-money-say-so
^ Rod Gilmore, “College football players deserve pay for play”, ESPN College Football, January 17, 2007, http://sports.espn.go.com/ncf/columns/story?id=2733624
^ Taylor Branch, “The Shame of College Sports”, The Atlantic, October, 2011, http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2011/10/the-shame-of-college-sports/308643/
^ Ben Strauss and Marc Tracy, “N.C.A.A. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
^ a b “The History of Football”. FOX Sports on MSN. Journal of Sport History. A (October 1913 – March 1914). Retrieved 2010-01-26.
^ Meacham, Scott (2006). April 16, 2007. Walter, who would enroll at Yale the next year, was torn between an admiration for Harvard’s style of play and the misery of the Yale defeat, and became determined to avenge Yale’s defeat. Paul Hornung, Notre Dame quarterback, did, however, win the Heisman in 1956, becoming the only player from a losing team ever to do so.
1.1 Rugby Football in England and Canada
1.2 American college football
1.2.1 Early games
1.2.2 Harvard-McGill (1874)
1.2.3 Harvard-Tufts, Harvard-Yale (1875)
1.2.4 Walter Camp: Father of American football
Retrieved from “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=College_football&oldid=738179815″
College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Sports Information Office. “Old Division Football, The Indigenous Mob Soccer Of Dartmouth College (pdf)” (PDF). In 1887, game time was set at two halves of 45 minutes each. Reading Eagle. Professional Football Researchers Association. Retrieved 2007-05-16.
^ Smith, R.A. The Boston Globe.
^ a b c d e f “Camp and His Followers: American Football 1876-1889″ (PDF). Weyand (1962). (1991). Kirwan, chancellor of the University of Maryland System and co-director of the Knight Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics, “We’ve reached a point where big-time intercollegiate athletics is undermining the integrity of our institutions, diverting presidents and institutions from their main purpose.” Football coaches often make more than the presidents of their universities which employ them. Athletes are alleged to receive preferential treatment both in academics and when they run afoul of the law. Although in theory football is an extra-curricular activity engaged in as a sideline by students, it generates a substantial profit, from which the athletes receive no direct benefit. pp. 285-311. sporting event.
An 1894 football game in Staunton, Virginia between VMI and Virginia Tech.
On November 23, 1876, representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit House in Springfield, Massachusetts to standardize a new code of rules based on the rugby game first introduced to Harvard by McGill University in 1874. As part of his single and double wing formations, Warner was one of the first coaches to effectively utilize the forward pass. It ended when Stanford requested and Michigan agreed to end it with 8 minutes on the clock. 1895. August 2008. The IAAUS was the original rule making body of college football, but would go on to sponsor championships in other sports. Retrieved March 24, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was (Sir) William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school. ISBN 1-57167-116-1. College Football Data Warehouse. Davis ’93 On Harvard Football”. Wade’s Alabama again won a national championship and Rose Bowl in 1930.
Map of CCCAA
Harvard-Tufts, Harvard-Yale (1875)
The BCS ended after the 2013 season and, since the 2014 season, the FBS national champion has been determined by a four-team tournament known as the College Football Playoff (CFP). Organized competition in American football also exists at the collegiate level in Mexico (ONEFA), the UK (British Universities American Football League), Japan (Japan American Football Association, Koshien Bowl), and South Korea (Korea American Football Association).
See also: History of American football and History of Canadian football
NCAA football official site
Composite television schedule of NCAA football games
College Football at d1sportsnet.com
College Football at Sports-Reference.com
Stassen College Football, comprehensive college football database
College Football Data Warehouse
NCAA Football 2011 and 2012 Rules and Interpretations
Google Map of Division II Football Programs
Map of FBS Teams and Conferences
^ Evans, Harold (August 1940). It was the first game in the south decided by a field goal. Heisman later used the trick against Pop Warner’s Georgia team. 63: 742-750.
^ “History”. When a game goes to overtime, each team is given one possession from its opponent’s twenty-five yard line with no game clock, despite the one timeout per period and use of play clock. Tales from the Oregon Ducks Sideline. CUBuffs.com reprint of Silver & Gold article. Retrieved 2007-06-01.
^ a b c “BCS Chronology”. Retrieved 2007-05-15.
^ a b c “NFL History3039-1910″. Athletics were banned at the school in May 1892, but when the strict school president, Benjamin Arnold, died, President John Bloss reversed the ban. Bloss’s son William started the first team, on which he served as both coach and quarterback. The team’s first game was an easy 63-0 defeat over the home team, Albany College.
Main article: 1874 Harvard vs. Division I FBS schools use replay in virtually all games; replay is rarely used in lower division games. ISBN 978-0-7948-2647-5.
^ “Wake Forest: A Look Back”.
^ “Furman University – 2014 FB Record Book”. This game is commonly referred to as “the game that changed the south.” Wade followed up the next season with an undefeated record and Rose Bowl tie. 1991 Pitt Football: University of Pittsburgh Football Media Guide. “N.C.A.A. Both Donahue and McGugin just came from the north that year, Donahue from Yale and McGugin from Michigan, and were among the initial inductees of the College Football Hall of Fame. It is recalled memorably with the phrase “… and on the seventh day they rested.”Grantland Rice called them “the most durable football team I ever saw.”
In 1879, the University of Michigan became the first school west of Pennsylvania to establish a college football team. The CFP is a four-team tournament whose participants are chosen and seeded by a 13-member selection committee. Football Immortals. December 27, 1892. Yale initially refused to join this association because of a disagreement over the number of players to be allowed per team (relenting in 1879) and Rutgers were not invited to the meeting. “1958 Colts remember the ‘Greatest Game'”. That game was so lopsided that the game was not played annually until 1916, when the Tournament of Roses decided to reattempt the postseason game. One conference champion from this group receives a spot in a New Year’s Six game. “From Football to Rugby–and Back, 1906-1919: The University of California-Stanford University Response to the “Football Crisis of 1905″” (PDF). William Dudley, a chemistry professor at Vanderbilt. The original members were Alabama, Auburn, Georgia, Georgia Tech, North Carolina, Sewanee, and Vanderbilt. The NFL, which previously treated the ball as dead during a conversion attempt–meaning that the attempt ended when the defending team gained possession of the football–adopted the college rule in 2015.
The two-minute warning is not used in college football, except in rare cases where the scoreboard clock has malfunctioned and is not being used.
There is an option to use instant replay review of officiating decisions. p. 179.
^ a b Mal Florence et al., The Trojan Heritage, 2004 USC Football Media Guide, USC Athletic Department, pp. The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. Retrieved 2016-01-24.
Track and Field
Men’s indoor and outdoor
Women’s indoor and outdoor
The 10 FBS conferences are formally and popularly divided into two groups:
Division II and Division III of the NCAA also participate in their own respective playoffs, crowning national champions at the end of the season. Retrieved October 11, 2009.
“College Football Rules Changes” (PDF). While both games benefited from the advent of television, since the late 1950s, the NFL has become a nationally popular sport while college football has maintained strong regional ties.
Partly as a compromise between both bowl game and playoff supporters, the NCAA created the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) in 1998 in order to create a definitive National Championship game for college football. TheGame.org. The first western team to travel east was the 1881 Michigan team, which played at Harvard, Yale and Princeton. The nation’s first college football league, the Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives (also known as the Western Conference), a precursor to the Big Ten Conference, was founded in 1895.
The 1905 Utah football team
As a result of the 1905-1906 reforms, mass formation plays became illegal and forward passes legal. “Yale’s Walter Camp and 1870s Rugby.” The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. Pantops Academy November 13, 1887 as the first game in Virginia.
Although rules for the high school, college, and NFL games are generally consistent, there are several minor differences. p. 8. Division III institutions also field teams, but do not offer any scholarships.
Don Hutson in 1940.
1.7 From a regional to a national sport (1930-1958)
1.8 Modern college football (since 1958)
1.8.1 Growth of bowl games
1.8.2 Bowl Championship Series
1.8.3 College Football Playoff
Knute Rockne rose to prominence in 1913 as an end for the University of Notre Dame, then a largely unknown Midwestern Catholic school.
^ “Ten Yard Rule a Failure” New York Times, December 26, 1905
^ “New Football Rules Tested” Los Angeles Times, December 26, 1905
^ a b “University of Florida Health Science Center Libraries”. p. 70.
^ Gary Migdol. Accessed 29 January 2007.
^ a b Parke H. The system still did not include the Big Ten, Pac-10, or the Rose Bowl, and thus still lacked the legitimacy of a true national championship. However, one positive side effect is that if there were three teams at the end of the season vying for a national title, but one of them was a Pac-10/Big Ten team bound to the Rose Bowl, then there would be no difficulty in deciding which teams to place in the Bowl Alliance “national championship” bowl; if the Pac-10/Big Ten team won the Rose Bowl and finished with the same record as whichever team won the other bowl game, they could have a share of the national title. Athens, Georgia: E. In the post-season, if the teams are still tied, teams will play additional overtime periods until either team scores.)
Extra point tries are attempted from the three-yard line. Chicago Tribune. 18, No. 16: 583. No minor league farm organizations exist in American football. The Dallas Morning News. This is where the name came into use, as it became known as the Rose Bowl Game. Professional Football Researchers Association. NCAA.org. Rules were simple, violence and injury were common. The violence of these mob-style games led to widespread protests and a decision to abandon them. Consisting mostly of schools from Texas, the conference saw back-to-back national champions with Texas Christian University (TCU) in 1938 and Texas A&M in 1939. The Pacific Coast Conference (PCC), a precursor to the Pac-12 Conference (Pac-12), had its own back-to-back champion in the University of Southern California which was awarded the title in 1931 and 1932. The Southeastern Conference (SEC) formed in 1932 and consisted mostly of schools in the Deep South. As in previous decades, the Big Ten continued to dominate in the 1930s and 1940s, with Minnesota winning 5 titles between 1934 and 1941, and Michigan (1933, 1947, and 1948) and Ohio State (1942) also winning titles.
American football at Oregon State University started in 1893 shortly after athletics were initially authorized at the college. Oklahoma, under coach Bud Wilkinson, won three national titles (1950, 1955, 1956) and all ten Big Eight Conference championships in the decade while building a record 47-game winning streak. Archived from the original on September 15, 2007. The Harvard students took to the rugby rules and adopted them as their own, The games featured a round ball instead of a rugby-style oblong ball. This series of games represents an important milestone in the development of the modern game of American football. In October 1874, the Harvard team once again traveled to Montreal to play McGill in rugby, where they won by three tries.
In 1998, a new system was put into place called the Bowl Championship Series. They are then invited to a bowl game based on their conference ranking and the tie-ins that the conference has to each bowl game. 2012-05-14. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
^ “The Football Game That Changed the South”. “A Look Back at High School Football in 1900s Decade”.
^ Triumph Books. The first intercollegiate game between official varsity teams was played on November 22, 1901. The History of Sports. Wallace William Wade’s 1925 Alabama team won the 1926 Rose Bowl after receiving its first national title and William Alexander’s 1928 Georgia Tech team defeated California in the 1929 Rose Bowl. Dartmouth won 91 to 0.
Events listed in italics have been discontinued.
The situation came to a head in 1905 when there were 19 fatalities nationwide. The Yale team was coached and captained by David Schley Schaff, who had learned to play football while attending Rugby school. December 18, 1930. With more national venues and increased available revenue, the bowls saw an explosive growth throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
^ “Concise Encyclopedia of Tufts History”.
^ “Penn Football:Origins To 1901″.
^ Mark F. In lieu of an actual national championship, these bowl games, along with the earlier Rose Bowl, provided a way to match up teams from distant regions of the country that did not otherwise play. The effect was to open up the game and emphasize speed over strength.
^ DeLassus, David. At this meeting, a list of rules, based more on the Football Association’s rules than the rules of the recently founded Rugby Football Union, was drawn up for intercollegiate football games.
On Thanksgiving Day 1903, a game was scheduled in Montgomery, Alabama between the best teams from each region of the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association for an “SIAA championship game”, pitting Cumberland against Heisman’s Clemson. For example, in years when not a part of the national championship, the Rose Bowl still hosted the Big Ten and Pac-10 champions.
1.3 Scoring table
1.4.2 Mid West
1.4.5 Pacific Coast
1.4.6 Mountain West
Coaches of the era
Glenn “Pop” Warner
As professional football became a national television phenomenon, college football did as well. The Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association (SIAA) was founded on December 21, 1894, by Dr. Retrieved 2012-12-18.
^ a b c d e f g “No Christian End!” (PDF). The annual Big Game between Stanford and California continued as rugby, with the winner invited by the British Columbia Rugby Union to a tournament in Vancouver over the Christmas holidays, with the winner of that tournament receiving the Cooper Keith Trophy.
On October 18, 1888, the Wake Forest Demon Deacons defeated the North Carolina Tar Heels 6 to 4 in the first intercollegiate game in the state of North Carolina.
The style of football playing has altered considerably; by the old rules, all men in front of the runner with the ball, were offside, consequently we could not send backs through and break the line ahead of the ball as is done at present. August 22, 1900. nfl.com. It is claimed by Georgetown authorities as the game with the first ever “roving center” or linebacker when Percy Given stood up, in contrast to the usual tale of Germany Schulz. The first linebacker in the South is often considered to be Frank Juhan.
During World War II, college football players enlisted in the armed forces, some playing in Europe during the war. It was also the first scoreless tie in the history of the fledgling sport.Yale football starts the same year and has its first match against Columbia, the nearest college to play football. Tar Heel Times. “Michigan-Chicago 1905: The First Greatest Game of the Century” (PDF). p. 64.
^ “Spotlight Athletics:”. Parker, decreed that American football was the appropriate athletic activity to train soldiers and rugby union was dropped.
Walter Camp is widely considered to be the most important figure in the development of American football. As a youth, he excelled in sports like track, baseball, and association football, and after enrolling at Yale in 1876, he earned varsity honors in every sport the school offered.
Meanwhile, John H. On 1 January 1902, Yost’s dominating 1901 Michigan Wolverines football team agreed to play a 3-1-2 team from Stanford University in the inaugural “Tournament East-West football game what is now known as the Rose Bowl Game by a score of 49-0 after Stanford captain Ralph Fisher requested to quit with eight minutes remaining.
1902 football game between the University of Minnesota and the University of Michigan
Growth of bowl games
See also: Bowl game
Growth of bowl
The 1930s saw growth in the passing game. The Coalition lasted for three years; however, several scheduling issues prevented much success; tie-ins still took precedence in several cases. Oregon finished the season with two additional losses and a tie, but went undefeated the following season, winning all four of its games under head coach Percy Benson. In 1899, the Oregon football team left the state for the first time, playing the California Golden Bears in Berkeley, California.
2 Official rules and notable rule distinctions
5 National championships
6 Team maps
7 Playoff games
8 Bowl games
8.1 Division I FBS National Championship Games
Unlike other college football divisions and most other sports–collegiate or professional–the Football Bowl Subdivision, formerly known as Division I-A college football, has historically not employed a playoff system to determine a champion. Because the college officials could not agree upon a change in rules, it was decided over the course of several subsequent meetings that an external governing body should be responsible. p. 4.
^ “USC Football Heads To Bay Area To Face No. Deseret News.
^ Gardner (1996)
^ Dupont, Kevin Paul (September 23, 2004). It was a recollection of the birth of Colorado football written by one of CU’s original gridders, John C. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
^ “History of the Football Helmet” from Past Time Sports. College Football Data Warehouse. Three of the schools–Harvard, Columbia, and Princeton–formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, as a result of the meeting. Amos Alonzo Stagg introduced such innovations as the huddle, the tackling dummy, and the pre-snap shift. Other coaches, such as Pop Warner and Knute Rockne, introduced new strategies that still remain part of the game.
College Football Playoff
College athletics in the United States
College Football Hall of Fame
College football on radio
College football on television
In 1907 at Champaign, Illinois Chicago and Illinois played in the first game to have a halftime show featuring a marching band. Chicago won 42-6. August 17, 1999.
^ Alexander M. Retrieved 2012-12-18.
^ “The History of the NCAA”. This “twenty” never played Columbia, but did play twice against Princeton. Princeton won both games 6 to 0. reconnects with past, but bowl scene not the same”. For the current season of Championship Subdivision play, see 2016 NCAA Division I FCS football season.
1906 St. Colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition, housing, and books.
# of games
College football playoff consist of 2 bowls and a champ game
After leaving Yale in 1882, Camp was employed by the New Haven Clock Company until his death in 1925. The Big East split into two leagues in 2013; the schools that did not play FBS football reorganized as a new non-football Big East Conference, while the FBS member schools that remained in the original structure joined with several new members and became the American Athletic Conference. Los Angeles Herald. Honus Craig then ran in the winning touchdown.
The first intercollegiate game in the state of Vermont happened on November 6, 1886 between Dartmouth and Vermont at Burlington, Vermont. Starting in 2013, non-seeded teams can only host a playoff game if both teams involved are unseeded; in such a matchup, the schools must bid for the right to host the game. Retrieved April 12, 2011.
^ “Timeline of Yale Football”. Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as an undrafted free agent.
No sport is wholesome in which ungenerous or mean acts which easily escape detection contribute to victory.
Modernization and innovation (1906-1930)
This audio file was created from a revision of the “College football” article dated 2006-05-29, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. The following season saw Vanderbilt execute a double pass play to set up the touchdown that beat Sewanee in a meeting of unbeatens for the SIAA championship. Boston Daily Globe. Dissatisfied with what seemed to him to be a disorganized mob, he proposed his first rule change at the first meeting he attended in 1878: a reduction from fifteen players to eleven. 2.
^ a b “A History of Washington and Lee Athletics”. Also, rules were changed to add the champions of five additional conferences (Conference USA [C-USA], the Mid-American Conference [MAC], the Mountain West Conference [MW], the Sun Belt Conference and the Western Athletic Conference [WAC]), provided that said champion ranked in the top twelve in the final BCS rankings, or was within the top 16 of the BCS rankings and ranked higher than the champion of at least one of the “BCS conferences” (also known as “AQ” conferences, for Automatic Qualifying). Several times since this rule change was implemented, schools from non-AQ conferences have played in BCS bowl games. (1995). Princeton, in particular, used scrimmage play to slow the game, making incremental progress towards the end zone during each down. A Harvard tradition known as “Bloody Monday” began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. Suits of flannel were ultimately procured and paid for assessments on the members of the association and generous contributions from members of the faculty.
Notable intersectional games
American football historian Parke H. The Chicago Daily Tribune called it “the first rugby-football game to be played west of the Alleghenies.” Other Midwestern schools soon followed suit, including the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, and the University of Minnesota. Each school played its own variety of football. If they are successful, they receive two points, if they are not, then they receive zero points. The number grew to eleven in 1976. (California’s two-year institutions are not under NJCAA jurisdiction and only compete for state championships.)
Club football, a sport in which student clubs run the teams instead of the colleges themselves, is overseen by two organizations: the National Club Football Association and the Intercollegiate Club Football Federation. It is still usually regarded as the first game of college football. The game was played at a Rutgers field. The 1917 team was the first national champion from the South, led by a powerful backfield. ABC Sports began broadcasting a national Game of the Week in 1966, bringing key matchups and rivalries to a national audience for the first time.
Brown enters the intercollegiate game in 1878.
In 1935, New York City’s Downtown Athletic Club awarded the first Heisman Trophy to University of Chicago halfback Jay Berwanger, who was also the first ever NFL Draft pick in 1936. The game featured the season’s two best defenses and included a goal line stand by Vanderbilt to preserve the tie. It was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used a set of rules suggested by Rutgers captain William J. Outing. Finally, on December 28, 1905, 62 schools met in New York City to discuss rule changes to make the game safer. Although before the mid-1920s most national powers came from the Northeast or the Midwest, the trend changed when several teams from the South and the West Coast achieved national success. Journals.humankinetics.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
^ “Amos Alonzo Stagg and Football at Chicago”.
^ Edwin Pope. On October 20, 1873, representatives from Yale, Columbia, Princeton, and Rutgers met at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City to codify the first set of intercollegiate football rules. p. D5.
^ a b “College Bowl Games”. Rutgers University. All of these games, and others, shared certain commonalities. Nixon was elected president and Holden secretary of the association.
University of Wisconsin football team, 1903
NCAA Division I Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champion at the second highest level of college football, Division I FCS, from 1978 to present.
NCAA Division I FCS Consensus Mid-Major Football National Championship – awarded by poll from 2001- to 2007 for a subset of the second highest level of play in college football, FCS.
In 1891, the first Stanford football team was hastily organized and played a four-game season beginning in January 1892 with no official head coach. October 3, 2010.
^ a b c d e f g h i j Park, Roberta J (Winter 1984). May 8, 1900. While Harvard’s voluntary absence from the meeting made it hard for them to schedule games against other American universities, it agreed to a challenge to play the rugby team of McGill University, from Montreal, in a two-game series. p. 3. 100 Years of Golden Gopher Football.
^ Patrick Dorsey (September 23, 2011). During this streak, Michigan scored 2,831 points while allowing only 40.
Rutgers was first to extend the reach of the game. (1969). The term “bowl” originates from the shape of the Rose Bowl stadium in Pasadena, California, which was built in 1923 and resembled the Yale Bowl, built in 1915. As a result, the official Division I National Champion is the winner of the Football Championship Subdivision, as it is the highest level of football with an NCAA-administered championship tournament.
The establishment of the CFP followed a tumultuous period of conference realignment in Division I. Retrieved March 13, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. How to Scout Football. Journal of Sport History, Vol. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860.
Main article: Head coach § College football
College football national championships in NCAA Division I FBS – Overview of systems for determining national champions at the highest level of college football from 1869 to present.
College Football Playoff – 4 team playoff system for determining national champions at the highest level of college football beginning in 2014.
Bowl Championship Series – The primary method of determining the national champion at the highest level of college football from 1998-2013; preceded by the Bowl Alliance (1995-1997) and the Bowl Coalition (1992-1994).
Canadian football, which parallels American football, is played by collegiate teams in Canada under the auspices of Canadian Interuniversity Sport. “John Franklin Crowell, Methodism, and the Football Controversy at Trinity College, 1887-1894″ (PDF). Retrieved June 11, 2011.
^ “NCAA Division I Football Championship”. Minnesota won 2 to 0. It was the first game west of the Mississippi River.
Even after the emergence of the professional National Football League (NFL), college football remained extremely popular throughout the Artic North of Spain Although the college game has a much larger margin for talent than its pro counterpart, the sheer number of fans following major colleges provides a financial equalizer for the game, with Division I programs – the highest level – playing in huge stadiums, six of which have seating capacity exceeding 100,000. The new NCAA rule applies to penalties on both sides of the ball.
Players lined up outside the tackle box–more specifically, those lined up more than 7 yards from the center–will now be allowed to block below the waist only if they are blocking straight ahead or toward the nearest sideline.
On placekicks, no offensive lineman can now be engaged by more than two defensive players. In 1927, his complex shifts led directly to a rule change whereby all offensive players had to stop for a full second before the ball could be snapped. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
^ “Likes Yost’s Manner: President Jordan of Leland Stanford University Gives His Opinion of the Coach”. Inside”) and Glenn Davis (known as “Mr. During that game, a large group of men and boys, who were observing from the roof of the nearby S.F. It is in college football where a player’s performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. Each champion of these conferences is assured of a spot in a New Year’s Six bowl, though not necessarily in a semifinal game. In 1952, the NCAA claimed all television broadcasting rights for the games of its member institutions, and it alone negotiated television rights. When Army scheduled Notre Dame as a warm-up game, they thought little of the small school. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
^ “FBS College Football History”. Teams had been scaled down from 25 players to 20. ACTIVE.com. The University of Alabama. p. 186. The wishbone is a run-heavy offense that depends on the quarterback making last second decisions on when and to whom to hand or pitch the ball to. Arlin announced that year’s Backyard Brawl played at Forbes Field on KDKA. Retrieved 2007-06-04.
^ “President Eliot on Football.” The School Journal, Volume 70, United Education Company, New York, Chicago, and Boston, February 18, 1905, p.188.
^ Vancil (2000), pp 16-18
^ Bennett (1976), pp 20
^ Lewis, Guy M. That changed with the debut of the four-team College Football Playoff at the end of the 2014 season.
NCAA Division II Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champion at the third highest level of college football from 1973 to present.
NCAA Division III Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champion at the fourth highest level of college football from 1973 to present.
NAIA National Football Championship -playoff for determining the national champions of college football governed by the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics.
NJCAA National Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champions of college football governed by the National Junior College Athletic Association.
CSFL Championship – Champions of the Collegiate Sprint Football League, a weight restricted football sport.
Harvard quickly took a liking to the rugby game, and its use of the try which, until that time, was not used in American football. “Changing seasons: Y. American athletes of the century”. An intercollegiate game was first played in the state of New York when Rutgers played Columbia on November 2, 1872. Starting with the 2015 season, the NFL uses the 15-yard line as the line of scrimmage for placekick attempts, but the two-yard line for two-point attempts. colleges or universities – Papa John’s Cardinal Stadium at the University of Louisville and FAU Stadium at Florida Atlantic University – consist entirely of chairback seating.)
Modern college football (since 1958)
Walter Camp Award
Associated Press Player of the Year
Johnny Rodgers Award
Fred Biletnikoff Award
Lou Groza Award
In the early 1930s, the college game continued to grow, particularly in the South, bolstered by fierce rivalries such as the “South’s Oldest Rivalry”, between Virginia and North Carolina and the “Deep South’s Oldest Rivalry”, between Georgia and Auburn. p. 3.
^ “Grantland Rice Tells Of Greatest Thrill In Years Of Watching Sport”. Vincent’s College to a 40-0 victory. In 1893, USC joined the Intercollegiate Football Association of Southern California (the forerunner of the SCIAC), which was composed of USC, Occidental College, Throop Polytechnic Institute (Cal Tech), and Chaffey College. Bernstein. San Francisco Chronicle. Pitt won 21-13. On October 28, 1922, Princeton and Chicago played the first game to be nationally broadcast on radio. (In the NFL overtime is decided by a 15-minute sudden-death quarter, and regular season games can still end in a tie if neither team scores. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
^ Alan Gould (January 24, 1931). First, Vanderbilt; second, Sewanee, a might good second;” and that Aubrey Lanier “came near winning the Vanderbilt game by his brilliant dashes after receiving punts.”Bob Blake threw the final pass to center Stein Stone, catching it near the goal amongst defenders. 2006. Augusta Computer Services. Los Angeles Times. Playing its first game on November 14 of that year against the Alliance Athletic Club, in which USC gained a 16-0 victory. The CFP is a Plus-One system, a concept that became popular as a BCS alternative following controversies in 2003 and 2004. The motion was rejected at that time but passed in 1880. Pomona College was invited to enter, but declined to do so. 2007. 2001. The game was essentially soccer with 20-man sides, played on a field 400 by 250 feet. Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College. Nixon, Silver & Gold, December 16, 1898
On 25 December 1894, Amos Alonzo Stagg’s Chicago Maroons agreed to play Camp’s Stanford football team in San Francisco in the first postseason intersectional contest, foreshadowing the modern bowl game. Future president Herbert Hoover was Stanford’s student financial manager. Chicago won 24 to 4. Stanford won a rematch in Los Angeles on December 29 by 12 to 0.
Following the enormous success of the 1958 NFL Championship Game, college football no longer enjoyed the same popularity as the NFL, at least on a national level. President Theodore Roosevelt reportedly threatened to shut down the game if drastic changes were not made. However, the threat by Roosevelt to eliminate football is disputed by sports historians. On the coaching staff of those 1944-1946 Army teams was future Pro Football Hall of Fame coach Vince Lombardi.
1917 saw the rise of another Southern team in Centre of Danville, Kentucky. Based on this ranking system, the No.1 and No.2 teams met each year in the national championship game. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
^ “Seventy-four to nothing”. On November 13, 1875, Yale and Harvard played each other for the first time ever, where Harvard won 4-0. The game ended in an 11-11 tie causing many teams to claim the title. This happened in the final year of the Bowl Alliance, with Michigan winning the 1998 Rose Bowl and Nebraska winning the 1998 Orange Bowl. Every play is subject to booth review with coaches only having one challenge. The mass plays being now barred, skill on the football field is more in demand than mere weight and strength.
On November 13, 1887 the Virginia Cavaliers and Pantops Academy fought to a scoreless tie in the first organized football game in the state of Virginia. Students at UVA were playing pickup games of the kicking-style of football as early as 1870, and some accounts even claim that some industrious ones organized a game against Washington and Lee College in 1871, just two years after Rutgers and Princeton’s historic first game in 1869. In the rankings of the most victorious programs, Michigan, Texas, and Notre Dame are ranked first, second, and third in total wins.
With the growth of bowl games, it became difficult to determine a national champion in a fair and equitable manner. These down-and-distance rules, combined with the establishment of the line of scrimmage, transformed the game from a variation of rugby football into the distinct sport of American football.
It was voted that the officers constitute a committee to provide uniform suits in which to play what was called “association football”. From 1901 to 1905, Michigan had a 56-game undefeated streak that included a 1902 trip to play in the first college football bowl game, which later became the Rose Bowl Game. Princeton Alumni Weekly. In 1910 Vanderbilt held defending national champion Yale to a scoreless tie.
Columbia University was the third school to field a team. Rather than simply a regional team, Rockne’s “Fighting Irish” became famous for barnstorming and played any team at any location. Retrieved 2007-05-31.
^ Ours, Robert M. MSNBC. heisman.com. The only way to score was still to bat or kick the ball through the opposing team’s goal, and the game was played in two 45 minute halves on fields 140 yards long and 70 yards wide. “Yellow Jackets-Cumberland Score Was Record One; Tops the List According to Statistics Compiled Showing All Scores Past the Century Mark”. Also, a complex system of human polls, computer rankings, and strength of schedule calculations was instituted to rank schools. Selection for the playoffs is determined by a selection committee, although usually a team must have a 7-4 record to even be considered. National Collegiate Athletic Association. Associated Press. and Pacific Glass Works, fell into the fiery interior of the building when the roof collapsed, resulting in 13 dead and 78 injured. On December 4, 1900, the last victim of the disaster (Fred Lilly) died, bringing the death toll to 22; and, to this day, the “Thanksgiving Day Disaster” remains the deadliest accident to kill spectators at a U.S. In the 1950s, Notre Dame, which had a large national following, formed its own network to broadcast its games, but by and large the sport still retained a mostly regional following. National Collegiate Athletic Association: 71-75.
^ Davis, Parke H. ISBN 978-0873970556.
^ “Harvard Football Timeline”. “CHC- Vandy Ties Michigan in 1922″.
^ “Alabama vs. They remained largely “mob” style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area, often by any means necessary. 17 (1).
^ Ratcliffe, Jerry (2008). For other uses, see College football (disambiguation).
“NCAA football” redirects here. In 1918, the rules on eligible receivers were loosened to allow eligible players to catch the ball anywhere on the field–previously strict rules were in place allowing passes to only certain areas of the field. Scoring rules also changed during this time: field goals were lowered to three points in 1909 and touchdowns raised to six points in 1912.
1904 saw big coaching hires in the south: Mike Donahue at Auburn, John Heisman at Georgia Tech, and Dan McGugin at Vanderbilt were all hired that year. What is absolutely certain is that on October 9, 1905, Roosevelt held a meeting of football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. Its primary restriction is that all players must weigh less than the average college student (that threshold is set, as of 2015, at 172 pounds/78 kg).
Star players that emerged in the early 20th century include Jim Thorpe, Red Grange, and Bronko Nagurski; these three made the transition to the fledgling NFL and helped turn it into a successful league. p. 15 – via Google books. Bill Traughber. Stetson beat Florida Agricultural College at Lake City, one of the four forerunners of the University of Florida, 6-0, in a game played as part of the Jacksonville Fair.
The following was taken from the Silver & Gold newspaper of December 16, 1898. In 1934, the rules committee removed two major penalties–a loss of five yards for a second incomplete pass in any series of downs and a loss of possession for an incomplete pass in the end zone–and shrunk the circumference of the ball, making it easier to grip and throw. November 27, 1941.
^ “Homecoming 2015″. Each year, one of the four bowl games served as a national championship game. Losses to an FBS team count against their playoff eligibility, while wins against a Division II opponent do not count towards playoff consideration. The coalition also excluded the Rose Bowl, arguably the most prestigious game in the nation, and two major conferences–the Pac-10 and Big Ten–meaning that it had limited success. 2007. Instead, it has a series of postseason “bowl games”. ISBN 0-9648244-7-7.
^ a b Libby, Brian. February 19, 1911. Harvard, however, preferred to play a rougher version of football called “the Boston Game” in which the kicking of a round ball was the most prominent feature though a player could run with the ball, pass it, or dribble it (known as “babying”). Retrieved 2007-05-31.
^ Vancil (2000), pp 39
^ Vancil (2000), pp 41-45
^ MacCambridge (1999) pp 172
^ MacCambridge (1999), pp 171
^ Bennett (1976) pp 56
^ Barnidge, Tom (2000). p. 5.
^ A Ghastly Holocaust: Football Spectators Plunged into Molten Glass, The (Adelaide) Advertiser, (Friday 11 January 1901), p.6.
^ Twenty Score Persons Make Awful Plunge: Seventeen People Meet Most Awful Death: Two San Jose Men Die Amid Sizzling Shrieking Human Mass in Collapsed Factory at Big Game, The (San Jose) Evening News, (Friday 30 November 1900), p.1, p.5.
^ Through a Roof to Death, The (Crawfordsville) Daily News-Review, (Friday, 30 November 1900), p.2.
^ Spectators Fell Into Molten Glass: Thirteen Dead, One Hundred Injured by Collapse of a Roof Overlooking the Stanford-Berkeley Game at San Francisco, The (Spokane) Spokesman-Review, (Friday 30 November 1900), p.1.
^ Death Reaps a Dread Harvest of Lives and Plunges City into Gloom, The San Francisco Call, (Friday, 30 November 1900), p.2.
^ Eskanazi, J., “Sudden Death: Boys Fell to Their Doom in S.F.’s Forgotten Disaster” San Francisco Weekly News, 15 August 2012
^ a b “Timeline”. ESPN. Journal of Sport History. NFL.com. Pop Warner’s Pittsburgh Panthers were also undefeated, but declined a challenge by Heisman to a game. Outside”) both won the Heisman Trophy, in 1945 and 1946 respectively. Sportswriter Grantland Rice helped popularize the sport with his poetic descriptions of games and colorful nicknames for the game’s biggest players, including Notre Dame’s “Four Horsemen” backfield and Fordham University’s linemen, known as the “Seven Blocks of Granite”.
The Big Game between Stanford and California was played as rugby union from 1906 to 1914.
Kickoff during the 1916 Colorado – Utah game
Power Five – Five of the six AQ conferences of the BCS era, specifically the ACC, Big Ten, Big 12, Pac-12, and SEC. This arrangement is contractually locked in until the 2026 season.
Swimming & Diving
Map of NCAA Division II
One publication claims “The first scouting done in the South was in 1905, when Dan McGugin and Captain Innis Brown, of Vanderbilt went to Atlanta to see Sewanee play Georgia Tech.”Fuzzy Woodruff claims Davidson was the first in the south to throw a legal forward pass in 1906. In Baldwin City, Kansas, on November 22, 1890, college football was first played in the state of Kansas. Following the season, Stanford captain John Whittemore wrote to Yale coach Walter Camp asking him to recommend a coach for Stanford. Washington and Lee also claims a 4 to 2 win over VMI in 1873.
In 1940, for the highest level of college football, there were only five bowl games (Rose, Orange, Sugar, Sun, and Cotton). This computer system, which factored in newspaper polls, online polls, coaches’ polls, strength of schedule, and various other factors of a team’s season, led to much dispute over whether the two best teams in the country were being selected to play in the National Championship Game.
College football expanded greatly during the last two decades of the 19th century. He was so famous at that point that his funeral was broadcast nationally on radio.
The first nighttime football game was played in Mansfield, Pennsylvania on September 28, 1892 between Mansfield State Normal and Wyoming Seminary and ended at halftime in a 0-0 tie. The Army-Navy game of 1893 saw the first documented use of a football helmet by a player in a game. Princeton won that game by a score of 8 – 0.
Division I FBS National Championship Games
Main articles: Bowl Championship Series and College Football Playoff
This system has been challenged often, beginning with an NCAA committee proposal in 1979 to have a four-team playoff following the bowl games. However, little headway was made in instituting a playoff tournament until 2014, given the entrenched vested economic interests in the various bowls. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
^ “Tarheels Credited With Throwing First Forward Pass”.
^ “Mansfield, Pennsylvania – It happened one night – First Football under lights – Mansfield PA 1892″. Sports Publishing LLC.College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1894
^ College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1894
^ College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1895
^ Forgard, Benjamin. “College Football”. “Vandy’s Great Victory Will Live In History”. 2007. The best collegiate players will typically declare for the professional draft after 3 to 4 years of collegiate competition, with the NFL holding its annual draft every spring. This game’s violence caused such an outcry that no games at all were played in 1871. Baylor Athletics (Baylor University). p. 116.
^ “Princeton-Chicago football game is broadcast across the country”.
^ George Allen. This allowed the four other BCS bowls to use their normal selection process to select the teams in their games while the top two teams in the BCS rankings would play in the new National Championship Game.
College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, colleges, and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. The notorious V was then in vogue, which gave a heavy team too much advantage. The other three current FBS independents, Army, BYU, and Massachusetts, are also considered to be part of this group. Woody Hayes led Ohio State to two national titles, in 1954 and 1957, and dominated the Big Ten conference, winning three Big Ten titles–more than any other school. University of Illinois. McGill football game
At the Division I FCS level, the teams participate in a 24-team playoff (most recently expanded from 20 teams in 2013) to determine the national championship. The inaugural champion was Ohio State University. The College Football Playoff replaced the Bowl Championship Series, which had been used as the selection method to determine the national championship game participants since in the 1998 season.
1895 football game between Auburn and Georgia.
At the Division I FBS level, teams must earn the right to be bowl eligible by winning at least 6 games during the season (teams that play 13 games in a season, which is allowed for Hawaii and any of its home opponents, must win 7 games). Associated Press. lumbia joined the series in 1870, and by 1872 several schools were fielding intercollegiate teams, including Yale and Stevens Institute of Technology.
Homosexuality in American football
List of defunct college football teams
List of defunct college football conferences
List of historically significant college football games
List of sports attendance figures
Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional “mob football” played in England. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear.
The 1894 Harvard-Yale game, known as the “Hampden Park Blood Bath”, resulted in crippling injuries for four players; the contest was suspended until 1897. In the NFL a player is active until he is tackled or forced down by a member of the opposing team (down by contact).
The clock stops after the offense completes a first down and begins again–assuming it is following a play in which the clock would not normally stop–once the referee says the ball is ready for play. The highest seed receives automatic home field advantage. Retrieved 2008-01-16.
^ A compilation of seven sources:
“History.” 2009 Baylor Football Media Almanac. The Walter Camp Foundation. Rockne is also credited with popularizing and perfecting the forward pass, a seldom used play at the time. The 1924 team featured the Four Horsemen backfield. In 1995, the Coalition was replaced by the Bowl Alliance, which reduced the number of bowl games to host a national championship game to three–the Fiesta, Sugar, and Orange Bowls–and the participating conferences to five–the ACC, SEC, Southwest, Big Eight, and Big East. Echoes of Oklahoma Sooners Football: The Greatest Stories Ever Told. In the thirty years from 1950 to 1980, seven bowl games were added to the schedule. The trophy recognizes the nation’s “most outstanding” college football player and has become one of the most coveted awards in all of American sports.
The Virginia Cavaliers (orange and blue home uniforms) play against the Penn State Nittany Lions (all-white away uniforms) in 2012 in Scott Stadium.
Rise of the South
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about gridiron football played at a collegiate level in the United States. The semifinals are hosted by two of a group of six traditional bowl games often called the “New Year’s Six”, with semifinal hosting rotating annually among three pairs of games in the following order: Rose/Sugar, Orange/Cotton, and Fiesta/Peach. WorldCat.org. There was no limit to the number of players, but there were typically ten to fifteen per side. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A. Heisman Trophy. The two-point conversion was not implemented in the NFL until 1994, but it had been previously used in the old American Football League (AFL) before it merged with the NFL in 1970.
The defensive team may score two points on a point-after touchdown attempt by returning a blocked kick, fumble, or interception into the opposition’s end zone. Football, the American intercollegiate game. It also became increasingly violent. The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics also holds a playoff.
Utilizing the “jump shift” offense, John Heisman’s Georgia Tech Golden Tornado won 222 to 0 over Cumberland on October 7, 1916, at Grant Field in the most lopsided victory in college football history. Tech went on a 33-game winning streak during this period. The game was won by Tufts 1-0 Harvard beat McGill in the “Boston Game” on the Thursday and held McGill to a 0-0 tie on the Friday. Several major rivalries date from this time period.
In 1909, the Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference was founded, featuring four members: Colorado, Colorado College, Colorado School of Mines, and Colorado Agricultural College. The NCAA Football Rules Committee determines the playing rules for Division I (both Bowl and Championship Subdivisions), II, and III games (the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) is a separate organization, but uses the NCAA rules).
Swimming & Diving
In May 1900, Yost was hired as the football coach at Stanford University, and, after traveling home to West Virginia, he arrived in Palo Alto, California, on August 21, 1900. Yost led the 1900 Stanford team to a 7-2-1, outscoring opponents 154 to 20. MSN Encarta. Retrieved 2007-05-19.
^ Vancil (2000), pp 18
^ John S. Watterson, “Inventing Modern Football”, American Heritage magazine, June 1988
^ Vancil (2000), pp 17
^ Vancil (2000) pp 22
^ “NFL History 1911-1920″. Retrieved April 4, 2011.
^ “College Football Games”. 2015 NCAA Football Records: Football Bowl Subdivision Records. Goddard were playing coaches for the first team which was put together by quarterback Arthur Carroll; who in turn volunteered to make the pants for the team and later became a tailor. USC faced its first collegiate opponent the following year in fall 1889, playing St. “College Football in Kansas”. Frank Suffel and Henry H. USC Trojans. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
Johnson, Greg (2008-08-28). The annual Army-Navy game was suspended from 1894 to 1898 for similar reasons. One of the major problems was the popularity of mass-formations like the flying wedge, in which a large number of offensive players charged as a unit against a similarly arranged defense. p. 15.
^ “Stanford Defeats Stagg’s Eleven”. University of Virginia Football Vault. April 27, 1924.
^ Dan McGugin (1907). Some coaches and officials questioned this rule change as it could lead to more injuries to the players as there will likely be more kickoff returns. The rationale for the rule change was to help reduce dead time in the game. The NFL returned its kickoff location to the 35-yard line effective in 2011; college football did not do so until 2012.
Several changes were made to college rules in 2011, all of which differ from NFL practice:If a player is penalized for unsportsmanlike conduct for actions that occurred during a play ending in a touchdown by that team, but before the goal line was crossed, the touchdown will be nullified. September 14, 1923.
^ cf. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
^ John C. OSU Alumni Association. Therefore, college football is generally considered to be the second tier of American football in the United States; one step ahead of high school competition, and one step below professional competition. Sports Reference.com. The Rose Bowl included Roy Riegels’ wrong-way run. Smith. At all other levels of football, plus all other touchback situations under NCAA rules, the ball is placed on the 20.
Among other rule changes in 2007, kickoffs were moved from the 35-yard line back five yards to the 30-yard line, matching a change that the NFL had made in 1994. Camp’s most famous change, the establishment of the line of scrimmage and the snap from center to quarterback, was also passed in 1880. It was also the first time one team scored over 100 points and the opposing team was shut out. The next week, Princeton outscored Lafayette by 140 to 0.
The 1905 season marked the first meeting between Stanford and USC. “Gridiron gridlock: Citing research, Tufts claims football history is on its side”. In many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests. Bradbury Robinson, playing for visionary coach Eddie Cochems at Saint Louis University, threw the first legal pass in a September 5, 1906, game against Carroll College at Waukesha. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
^ “The History of Homecoming”. In addition, if the defensive team gains possession, but then moves backwards into the end zone and is stopped, a one-point safety will be awarded to the offense, although, unlike a real safety, the offense kicks off, opposed to the team charged with the safety. Retrieved 2009-02-18.
^ Nelson (1994), pp 48
^ “Big Ten History”. “Sewanee, long-lost member of the SEC”.
^ “On the 7th Day They Rested” (PDF).
^ “Grantland Rice”. Later changes made it possible to snap the ball with the hands, either through the air or by a direct hand-to-hand pass.Rugby league followed Camp’s example, and in 1906 introduced the play-the-ball rule, which greatly resembled Camp’s early scrimmage and center-snap rules. In the NFL both feet must be inbounds.
A player is considered down when any part of his body other than the feet or hands touches the ground or when the ball carrier is tackled or otherwise falls and loses possession of the ball as he contacts the ground with any part of his body, with the sole exception of the holder for field goal and extra point attempts. Traditional tie-ins were maintained for schools and bowls not part of the national championship. It has its own arrangement for access to the New Year’s Six games should it meet certain standards.
Group of Five – The remaining five FBS conferences – American, C-USA, MAC, MW, and Sun Belt. The last team from the non-AQ ranks to reach a BCS bowl game in the BCS era was Northern Illinois in 2012, which played in (and lost) the 2013 Orange Bowl.
Violence, formation of NCAA
The 1893 Stanford American football team
The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics has jurisdiction over more than 80 college football teams, mostly in the midwest.
The National Junior College Athletic Association has jurisdiction over two-year institutions. December 30, 1894. November 27, 2011. The Division I National Championship game is held in Frisco, Texas.
The 1950s saw the rise of yet more dynasties and power programs. 2007. The first team to reach six goals was declared the winner. He also lacked the authority to abolish football and was, in fact, actually a fan of the sport and wanted to preserve it. Retrieved 2012-10-22.
^ “Parke H. College football quickly became the most popular spectator sport in the South.
By 1873, the college students playing football had made significant efforts to standardize their fledgling game. The game featured no uniforms, no positions, and the rules were formulated before the game.
As a result of this, Harvard refused to attend the rules conference organized by Rutgers, Princeton and Columbia at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City on October 20, 1873 to agree on a set of rules and regulations that would allow them to play a form of football that was essentially Association football; and continued to play under its own code. ESPN.com. “Yale Yearly Results (1880-1884)”. 40: 717-724. Among his other innovations are modern blocking schemes, the three-point stance, and the reverse play. The youth football league, Pop Warner Little Scholars, was named in his honor.
A night game between Harvard and Brown, September 25, 2009
Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Virginia and the south on November 2, 1873 in Lexington between Washington and Lee and VMI. p. 128.
^ Langum, David J. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
^ “Stanford Game-by-Game Results; 1892-1895″. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
^ “Florida Power:The Early Years”. As most of these players had eligibility left on their college careers, some of them returned to college at West Point, bringing Army back-to-back national titles in 1944 and 1945 under coach Red Blaik. 2007-02-14. The rules committee legalized the forward pass instead. Beats Throop By a Score of 22 to 12 at Pasadena”. The game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges.
Map of Division I (AA) FCS
In 1906 Vanderbilt defeated Carlisle 4 to 0, the result of a Bob Blake field goal. In 1907 Vanderbilt fought Navy to a 6 to 6 tie. (Audio help)
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The Big Game between Stanford and California is the oldest college football rivalry in the West. Princeton won 21-18 in a hotly contested game which had Princeton dubbed the “Team of Destiny.”
From a regional to a national sport (1930-1958)
After the first game against Harvard, Tufts took its squad to Bates College in Lewiston, Maine for the first football game played in Maine. This occurred on November 6, 1875.
Walter Camp, the “Father of American Football”, pictured here in 1878 as the captain of the Yale Football team
The Athletic Association should now invigorate its base-ball and place it at par with its football team; and it certainly has the material with which to do it. Messrs Carney, Whittaker, Layton and others, who at that time constituted a majority of the male population of the University, called a meeting of the campus boys in the old medical building. Colorado found much success in its early years, winning eight Colorado Football Association Championships (1894-97, 1901-08).
National Collegiate Athletic Association
College football outside the United States
See also: List of college football games played outside the United States
Track and Field
Men’s indoor and outdoor
Women’s indoor and outdoor
The first USC football squad (1888). Stone. Tech center Bum Day was the first player on a Southern team ever selected first-team All-American by Walter Camp.
Rugby Football in England and Canada
The University of Colorado began playing American football in 1890. Stevens lost to Columbia, but beat both New York University and City College of New York during the following year.
American college football
In 1864, at Trinity College, also a college of the University of Toronto, F. Though some coaches, such as General Robert Neyland at Tennessee, continued to eschew its use, several rules changes to the game had a profound effect on teams’ ability to throw the ball. Evolvements of Early American Foot Ball: Through the 1890/91 Season. At-large teams could be chosen from any of the Division I conferences, though only one selection–Utah in 2005–came from a non-BCS affiliated conference. The two semifinal winners then advance to the College Football Playoff National Championship, whose host is determined by open bidding several years in advance.
“The Invention Of Football”. p. 21. It was his last game as Clemson head coach.
1.5 Violence, formation of NCAA
1.6 Modernization and innovation (1906-1930)
1.6.1 Rise of the South
188.8.131.52 Heisman shift
184.108.40.206 Notable intersectional games
The University of Oregon began playing American football in 1894 and played its first game on March 24, 1894, defeating Albany College 44-3 under head coach Cal Young. Cal Young left after that first game and J.A. These games are played from mid-December to early January and most of the later bowl games are typically considered more prestigious.
November 30, 1905, saw Chicago defeat Michigan 2 to 0. In 1921 Bo McMillin-led Centre upset defending national champion Harvard 6 to 0 in what is widely considered one of the greatest upsets in college football history. Camp’s innovations in the area of point scoring influenced rugby union’s move to point scoring in 1890. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. Yet others have countered that the increased number of games has increased exposure and revenue for a greater number of schools, and see it as a positive development.
College football increased in popularity through the remainder of the 19th and early 20th century. Though no longer a player, he remained a fixture at annual rules meetings for most of his life, and he personally selected an annual All-American team every year from 1889 through 1924. However, after a few years, the school began to feel the isolation of its newly adopted sport, which was not spreading as many had hoped. A selection committee of college football experts decides the participating teams. The annual National Champion in the Football Bowl Subdivision is then instead traditionally determined by a vote of sports writers and other non-players.
Several organizations operate college football programs outside the jurisdiction of the NCAA:
Led by coach Fielding H. Oregon Ducks Football: 100 Years of Glory. New York Times. For the 2009 season, there were 34 bowl games, so 68 of the 120 Division I FBS teams were invited to play at a bowl. Retrieved 2007-08-23.
^ “Knute Rockne”. Dubbed “The First Greatest Game of the Century,” broke Michigan’s 56-game unbeaten streak and marked the end of the “Point-a-Minute” years.
1904 Vanderbilt team in action.
Bowl Championship Series
Main article: Bowl Championship Series
See also: NCAA Division I Football Championship
At the beginning of the first semester in the fall of ’90 the boys rooming at the dormitory on the campus of the U. Rockne and quarterback Gus Dorais made innovative use of the forward pass, still at that point a relatively unused weapon, to defeat Army 35-13 and helped establish the school as a national power. In 1881, the field was reduced in size to its modern dimensions of 120 by 531/3 yards (109.7 by 48.8 meters). (Unlike in the United States, no junior colleges play football in Canada, and the sanctioning body for junior college athletics in Canada, CCAA, does not sanction the sport.) However, amateur football outside of colleges is played in Canada, such as in the Canadian Junior Football League. At the birth of cable television and cable sports networks like ESPN, there were fifteen bowls in 1980. In 1992, seven conferences and independent Notre Dame formed the Bowl Coalition, which attempted to arrange an annual No.1 versus No.2 matchup based on the final AP poll standings. Incidentally, rugby was to make a similar change to its scoring system 10 years later.
Helping Georgia Tech’s claim to a title in 1917, the Auburn Tigers held undefeated, Chic Harley-led Big Ten champion Ohio State to a scoreless tie the week before Georgia Tech beat the Tigers 68 to 7. Students and alumni began to clamor for a return to American football to allow wider intercollegiate competition. The pressure at rival California was stronger (especially as the school had not been as successful in the Big Game as they had hoped), and in 1915 California returned to American football. D. The high school won 24 to 0.
Glenn “Pop” Warner coached at several schools throughout his career, including the University of Georgia, Cornell University, University of Pittsburgh, Stanford University, and Temple University. One of his most famous stints was at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, where he coached Jim Thorpe, who went on to become the first president of the National Football League, an Olympic Gold Medalist, and is widely considered one of the best overall athletes in history. Warner wrote one of the first important books of football strategy, Football for Coaches and Players, published in 1927. Though the shift was invented by Stagg, Warner’s single wing and double wing formations greatly improved upon it; for almost 40 years, these were among the most important formations in football. Starting with the 2006 season, a fifth game–simply called the BCS National Championship Game–was added to the schedule, to be played at the site of one of the four BCS bowl games on a rotating basis, one week after the regular bowl game. Navy won 24-0.
New formations and play sets continued to be developed. This college rule was added in 1988. It was the first time organized football played in the state of Tennessee. The 29th also saw the first instance of the Army-Navy Game. The game suffered from disorganization and the players kicked and battled each other as much as the ball. This situation continued until 1984, when several schools brought a suit under the Sherman Antitrust Act; the Supreme Court ruled against the NCAA and schools are now free to negotiate their own television deals. Tennessee Historical Society. Possessions alternate with each overtime, until one team leads the other at the end of the overtime. The Terrors were a mix of Methodist college students and high schoolers. The Sooners did not manage a single first down. Handbook of Southern Intercollegiate Track and Field Athletics. p. 4.
^ “Stanford’s Football Coach Has Arrived”. 1, 2007, ISBN 1-4042-1919-6.
^ Bailey, John Wendell (1924). Spectators from Princeton also carried the game back home, where it quickly became the most popular version of football.
November 1890 was an active time in the sport. Hickok Sports. Rather than increase scoring, which had been Camp’s original intent, the rule was exploited to maintain control of the ball for the entire game, resulting in slow, unexciting contests. This article incorporates text from the McGill University Gazette (April 1874), two issues of The Montreal Gazette (14 May and 19 May 1874). November 22, 1893.
^ a b Migdol, Gary (1997). Grantland Rice cited this event as the greatest thrill he ever witnessed in his years of watching sports. Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin in Spalding’s Football Guide’s summation of the season in the SIAA wrote “The standing. p. 5. The term “Big Game” was first used in 1900, when it was played on Thanksgiving Day in San Francisco. At the 1882 rules meeting, Camp proposed that a team be required to advance the ball a minimum of five yards within three downs. Later in 1872, Stevens Tech became the fifth school to field a team. On May 30, 1879 Michigan beat Racine College 1-0 in a game played in Chicago. In the NFL, only scoring plays, turnovers, the final 2:00 of each half and all overtime periods are reviewed, and coaches are issued two challenges (with the option for a 3rd if the first two are successful).
Starting in the 2012 season, the ball is placed on the 25-yard line following a touchback on a kickoff. p. 232.
^ David M. The two teams agreed to play under a set of rules called the “Concessionary Rules”, which involved Harvard conceding something to Yale’s soccer and Yale conceding a great deal to Harvard’s rugby. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
“NFL History by Decade: 1911-1920.” National Football League. Sumner (1990). p. 14.
^ Southern Inter-Collegiate Athletic Association (PDF). Sports Publishing LLC. By 1950, three more had joined that number and in 1970, there were still only eight major college bowl games. March 29, 1916 – via Google books. “Buff Milestones” (PDF). 256 players are selected annually. But no record has been found of the score of this contest. (2007). pp. A3.
^ Alex Lynn (November 25, 1906). As conferences became contractually bound to certain bowl games (a situation known as a tie-in), match-ups that guaranteed a consensus national champion became increasingly rare. Mary’s, Santa Clara, and USC (in 1911). However, due to the perception that West Coast football was inferior to the game played on the East Coast anyway, East Coast and Midwest teams shrugged off the loss of the teams and continued playing American football. With no nationwide movement, the available pool of rugby teams to play remained small. The schools scheduled games against local club teams and reached out to rugby union powers in Australia, New Zealand, and especially, due to its proximity, Canada. 16 Stanford”. Nelson. The President’s sons were also playing football at the college and secondary levels at the time.
Durung 12 seasons of playing rugby union, Stanford was remarkably successful: the team had three undefeated seasons, three one-loss seasons, and an overall record of 94 wins, 20 losses, and 3 ties for a winning percentage of .816. Ivy League Rugby Conference (2009-01-31). Prescott Evening Courier.
The stress of risking huge amounts of money or the frustration after losing it can increase the tendency of abuse in gamblers. They tend to stay away from their near ones, resulting in distrust between them and their loved ones.
? Similar to how an individual keeps consuming substances like drugs or alcohol to experience an altered mental state, he continues to gamble. Card games, coin tossing, and dice-based games are some non-casino based forms of gambling. A recreational activity is supposed to be refreshing and relaxing, but something like gambling is contrary to the very purpose of recreation. The decision to gamble money is based on three parameters namely; how much to bet, the predictability of the event, and the conditions agreed upon, between the gamblers. Some take to substance abuse to supplement the high they get from winning huge sums while gambling. The addiction leads people to continue with gambling irrespective of whether they earn or lose in the deal. It can drag you into crime, gambling isn’t fun.
Initially, one looks at gambling as a way to run away from life’s problems, or from stress, anger, and loneliness. Addiction to gambling, coupled with substance abuse can make the gamblers physically abusive towards their family. To add to the so-called merry atmosphere, gamblers often smoke or drink while playing.
? A majority of those addicted to gambling have substance abuse disorders.
? Over time, the practice of gambling starts becoming a habit and begins to have damaging effects at psychological, physical, and social levels. Some go that way to forget the sorrow of losing big sums when gambling.
? Gambling can lead to criminal activities. The addiction robs a gambler of all the productive time and leads to loss of efficiency at work. The addiction gets on to the gamblers to such an extent that they fail to think wisely before acting. Due to lost mental peace, they may ill-treat their spouse and children. Rehabilitating the gambling addicts needs money and time, and the process is not very easy. Their mental state can even lead to suicidal tendencies.
Mental and physical health problems, financial issues, and conflicts in the family are among the common negative effects of gambling. The addiction has negative effects on one’s physical and mental health and it proves to be detrimental to one’s social, personal, and professional life. They engage in gambling activities at the cost of their time with family and friends. In the following sections of this Buzzle article, we discuss the negative effects of gambling on the individual and society.
? Problem gamblers and addicts tend to abuse their family members. It causes a decline in his/her work performance, thus hampering his career.
Compulsive gambling leads to bankruptcy
? Apart from absence at work and drop in efficiency, a common observation is that gamblers tend to steal money and engage in fraudulent behavior to recover from financial losses incurred when gambling, or to get more money to bet.
? The stress from gambling may lead to health issues like ulcers, stomach problems, muscle pains, headaches, and problems with sleep.
Gambling = Thoughtless Expenditure + Waste of Time
? An Austrian study said that around 1 in 5 suicidal patients had a gambling problem.
? Substances of abuse are served at casinos and in pubs and clubs, thus increasing the likelihood of gamblers consuming them. ? According to a study by the George State University, 50% of the problem gamblers commit crime. Over time, it becomes a habit, and eventually an obsession that can’t be overcome. It soon becomes a habit that can’t be broken.
? As gambling leads to increased criminal activities, in a way, gamblers add to the burden on prisons and the legal system.
? The costs of treating compulsive gamblers are huge. The National Council of Problem Gambling (NCPG) describes this type of gambling behavior as problem gambling.
Gambling refers to the betting of money on an event with an uncertain outcome, with the intent of winning additional wealth. The effect is similar to that of having a drug or a drink, which is why gambling changes one’s mental state and mood.
? People continue gambling with the greed of winning money. The two go hand in hand. Their debt keeps building and it may reach an amount that exceeds their capacity to repay.
? According to a research by NCPG, 76 percent of problem gamblers are likely to have a major depressive disorder.
? The addiction to gambling can leave one in bankruptcy. On giving a serious consideration to the negative effects of gambling, we realize that it is best avoided.
? Research has shown that gambling can lead to harmful behavior in people. It only leads to a thoughtless expenditure of money and valuables.
? Addiction to gambling has been linked with substance abuse. Betting is a mentally taxing activity, and as one goes on risking more and more money, anxiety starts building.
? Gamblers often exhibit mood swings and a strangely secretive behavior. The greed never ends and they keep betting more and more. When they lose the money they had risked, they further gamble to recover the lost amount and it becomes a vicious circle even they can’t escape from.
? They start borrowing money and take secret loans. Because of this, they land in worse situations and take the wrong decisions in life.
? Children of parents who are problem gamblers or gambling addicts tend to feel abandoned and angry, further increasing stress and leading to strained family relations.
Games offered in casinos, table games like poker, Red Dog, and Blackjack, as also electronic games like Slot Machine and Video Poker are some of the common types of gambling. According to the National Research Council, 10 to 17% of the children of problem gamblers have been abused and so have 25 to 50% of the partners of problems gamblers.
? People who fall prey to gambling tend to remain away from their families and waste money on other bad practices. Thus, gambling can have a grave economic impact which is difficult to reverse.
? Additionally, rehabilitation and public assistance systems are taxed.. A study by the same university suggested that 73% of the individuals who are imprisoned are found to be problem gamblers.
? Gambling has proven to be addictive. The skill of a gambler lies in weighing the three parameters and making a decision about what amount should be staked and how much should be expected in return.
? Gambling is practiced as a means of recreation. In spite of the losses incurred, they continue betting. This proves to be detrimental to their social and family life. Six to eight million people in America are estimated to have a gambling problem.
? According to the University of New York, in people with alcohol use disorders, the chances of developing an addiction to gambling are 23 times higher.
? Studies show that children with a sibling or parent addicted to gambling, are more likely to take to substance abuse.
? Gambling at the cost of one’s job results in a decline in the quality of his professional life. Forget satisfaction or peace, it is not even refreshing in the real sense. Sports betting and arbitrage betting are the other types. Thus, gambling practices cause a huge financial burden on the families of the affected and on the society at large.
And as is the case with the Arkansas-based giant, many times this will be more profitable than being extremely selective and doing a small amount of volume, even if the mark-up is higher.
Making it more difficult for sports bettors is that some sports services will claim to have won 200 units in a particular sport, but don’t mention that they release 10- or 20-unit plays, along with several 100-unit “locks” at the end of the year if things aren’t going so well and they need something to base next year’s advertising on.
With baseball season coming back in about 4 months, many sports gamblers will be seeing ads from different sports services claiming winning percentages of 65-percent for baseball, and that’s entirely possibly, but what the services aren’t saying is that the majority of their selections were favorites of -200 or more, turning that 65-percent handicapping into a losing proposition.
The only statistic that sports bettors should be concerned with is units won, which is the amount of profit, or loss, they have over time, and not worry nearly as much about winning percentage. A winning percentage of 55-percent sure doesn’t sound as sexy as a 60-percent handicapper, but if your volume of plays is high enough, it can certainly be much more profitable.
If somebody were to ask you if you would rather be a 60-percent handicapper or a 55-percent handicapper, which would you choose? The obvious answer is that it’s better to be a 60-percent handicapper, but that isn’t necessarily true.
The 55-percent handicapper is using what is commonly referred to as the Wal-Mart Approach, which is to have a lot of volume with the expectation of grinding out a small profit. For the bettors that do their own handicapping, however, units won is really the only thing you should be concerned with, as that ultimately is going to translate into the bottom line. At the end of the month, the 55-percent handicapper would have gone 83-67 for a gain of 9.3 units, while the 60-percent handicapper would have gone 18-12 for a profit of 4.8 units, so the 55-percent handicapper has made nearly twice as much.. In the question above, it would be much better to be a 55-percent handicapper if you were playing 150 games a month, as opposed to a 60-percent handicapper playing one game a day
Although I had been playing organized football for only five years, I had watched a lot of football on TV previously. One of the primary criticisms of the 10-year role – namely the spontaneous nature of creativity – will also be addressed. In essence, they are the key holders to the secret code.
Piirto, J. There are few rules for creativity, they claim. I got involved in school-supported football at that point (8th grade). My experience and practice in football totaled more than 10 years.
We’ve all heard performance artists say how much they studied music and practiced with an instrument like the guitar before they were able to play more advanced classical pieces and develop their own unique style. Now, I am exploring “best practices” in fundraising and endowment campaigns as part of my Ph.D. He argues that it is impossible “for a person who has not mastered a domain or been involved in a field” (102) to take full advantage of the incubation phase. In other words, one thing that may define people with a consistently high level of creative performance is the degree of expertise in a specific domain or discipline that has taken place over time, as well as practice and experience. “How do you get to Carnegie Hall?” the adage goes. (1996). I basically documented “what works” in grant writing and began teaching others what I knew. One of the foundations for her speaking is a scripted text that represents countless hours of research and analysis (also her genius) of a wide range of subjects, from the new field of social artistry to spiral dynamics to ancient mystery school practices. Two years later, Coach Pessell elevated me to the varsity team as a sophomore to challenge me even more and bring my fledgling skills to a higher level. She employs a great deal of spontaneity and humor along with wildly evocative and energizing lexicon (i.e., universal self, core tapping, pollination, social artistry, passion for the possible, lure of becoming) launched with such delicacy and impeccable timing. She is also one of the most widely-read people I know. I received a great deal of public recognition after I gained performance mastery in the sport of football. I also participated in pick-up games and organized sports like baseball and basketball with neighbors for more than five years. For example, one of the greatest public speakers that I’ve ever heard is Dr. “Practice, practice, practice!”
Finally, the second example of the 10-year rule happened to me professionally. Finally, two personal examples will be used to support the 10-year rule.
Support for the 10-year rule may be found in the expertise (or eminence) hypothesis presented by Piirto that “every field and domain of knowledge in which creativity can be demonstrated has novice levels, apprenticeship levels, expert levels, and special jargons” (15). This area is easy for me, I’m confident speaking and writing, and my contributions are almost immediately well-received largely because I enjoy grant writing/management and teaching experience of more than 12 years.
In this essay, the 10-year rule will be introduced using arguments presented by Jane Piirto and Mihaly Csikszentmahalyi. To contribute to the field and challenge myself, I created a 10-credit college grant writing certification program. . The first happened during high school. In other words, a discoverer must be familiar with a discipline for deeper creative solutions to emerge.
Phil Johncock is an award-winning author, educator and mentor. My students have since gone on to generate over $1.2 billion in funding in 2.5 years. He is an authority in how to get grants, scholarships and fundraising, as well as an authority in finding and branding your niche, completion, and working at home. Understanding creativity. He implies that a certain amount of the patterns, knowledge and rules of a field like physics must be ‘internalized’ before deeper incubation can occur or creative, scientific breakthroughs be made. (2004). Finally, it was Coach Pessell’s adaptation of the Ohio State Buckeye’s power-I offense that created a structure through which my talent flourished and shined. I wrote a masters thesis on the “Metaphysics of Successful Grant Writing” which I turned into a teaching/learning book on grant writing. Piirto calls this the “10 year rule.” “Any person,” she claims, “must have been working in a domain for a minimum of 10 years in order to achieve international recognition” (15).
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Csikszentmihalyi, M. Scottsdale, AZ: Great Potential Press, Inc.
At least two creativity theorists (Csikszentmahalyi & Piirto) argue that creativity (with a big “C”) relies upon a certain degree of mastery over a domain in order for a creator to be successful. Jean Houston. Criticisms may also come from those who associate creativity with spontaneous, free flowing improvisations. Starting in 1988, I wrote (and management) 48 out of 52 successful grant proposals (92+% success rate). This is indeed a valid argument. I received many accolades (i.e., all-state running back, school and state (Michigan) records-setter, and Hall of Fame athlete) as a result of my performance during my senior (12th) year. However, even with improvisational genius, some degree of expertise and rule-following is required as a foundation beyond “practice, practice, practice.”
To support the role of master teachers presented earlier, I would like to appreciate my high school football coach, Fred Pessell, for challenging me in middle school to be a better running back than Ralph Ryan, a classmate.
Performers who rely on a large amount of apparent spontaneity (i.e., orators and comedians, for example) actually do follow rules of impeccable timing and use expertise in voice modulation and intentional pausing, amongst other personal skills many that are not apparent to the novice (I would say here I’m at the ‘apprentice’ level). Creativity: flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. She once told me that in 20 years she compiled over 200 unpublished 400-page manuscripts on the shelves that she has used as scripts for her presentations. She relies on her extensive expertise in hypnosis, theater, group dynamics, and comedy (her father was a comedy writer for Bob Hope and the creator of the famous “Who’s On First?” skit). These may not be apparent on the surface to a novice but they represent many decades of practice and experience.
Confirmation for the 10-year rule also appears in the work of Csikszentmihalyi, specifically regarding the ‘incubation’ phase of creativity. You can reach Phil at www.4Grants.Net and www.BrandYourNiche.com/blog.
Personally, there are two examples of the 10-year rule that I can apply to my life personally and professionally. Nonetheless, exploration of the levels of creativity (i.e., novice, apprenticeship, expert) has largely evaded theorists. That challenge ignited a competitive drive for me to move forward. New York, NY: HarperCollins.
Criticisms may come from people who say that everyone is creative (with a small “c”); unfortunately, this is beyond the scope of this essay. Mastery is also needed, they claim, for creative products to be widely accepted and recognized by others, especially critics. In short, what role does a master teacher plays in producing creative genius and progressing from novice to expert? What is it that allows for mastery to take place? One explanation, says Piirto, is that “master coaches and teachers have codified the knowledge necessary for mastering the domain” (15). Morever, little has been written about the relationship of the expert with his or her master teacher along the continuum of creativity levels
Affirmative action is not a perfect solution, but does provide the best opportunity for people of all backgrounds to be given the chance to compete. That profound statement truly sums up the essence of racial privilege and what it is to be white in the United States. Maura J. It demonstrates that some people are given a head start while others have to work much harder to get to the same place. The end result is the same, but one is much more painful.
The white team is allowed to field three times the numbers of players than the black team.
The white team grew up playing baseball in organized leagues and attending private baseball camps.
All of the previous 43 commissioners of baseball have been from the white team. Supreme Court, some are claiming white men are being discriminated against despite the fact that seven of the nine justices are white men. In 1947, Brooklyn Dodgers general manager Branch Rickey, motivated both by the ideal of racial equality and the desire to win ballgames, added a black player to his team. The player was the legendary Jackie Robinson. I recall seeing a photo of then Presidential candidate John Edwards on the cover of Esquire magazine, with the caption, “Can a White man still be President?” There have been 44 Presidents, 43 of them have been white men. There is no denying every President had to work hard to earn the highest office in the land. Instead of asking such a silly question, we should be asking ourselves why has there only been one non-white President and no women?
I recall reading a quote by Barry Switzer, “Some people are born on third base and go through life thinking they’ve hit a triple”. Cullen
Claims of reverse discrimination have been around for a while; however, recent events have brought it back into the forefront.
Discrimination is discrimination not matter which direction it is pointed. Now the first black commissioner is attempting to appoint a black umpire. Yet the white team is claiming it is unfair.
The white team has all of the latest and greatest equipment while the black team has to settle for the white teams discards.
America’s Favorite Pastime
White vs. Black
By: Dr. With the Supreme Court’s decision regarding the New Haven, CT white firefighters reverse discrimination case, the election of President Obama and the nomination of Sonia Sotomayo, the first Latina to be nominated to the U.S. What it means is that they are no longer given the advantage of starting on third base but must take their turn in the batter’s box along with everyone else. Racism in America still results in a disproportionate number of white people getting on base because they were walked while many people of color were hit by a pitch. I think it’s a sure bet that we will see at least one white man as President again. Branch Rickey wanted the most talented ball players and was smart enough to know that some of the best players were not white.
The umpires are employed by the white team and use to be members of the white team.
Today, there are many Jackie Robinsons so to speak, who deserve a chance to demonstrate their exceptional skills and talents. It’s about creating a level playing field where everyone must earn their way on base and where everyone has a chance to step up to the plate.
Instead of three outs, the white team gets six outs.
This is how I make sense of claims of reverse discrimination. In doing so, the pair ended the baseball color line of the sixty-year era of segregation. There are white people who are passed over for positions they deserved.
To continue the baseball analogy, affirmative action is not about taking white players off the field.
At times affirmative action policy is not implemented to its true intent. They have every right to be upset at the injustice.
Yet for every one of those instances where a white person falls prey to discrimination, there are ten times the numbers of People of Color who experience such discrimination. However, it would appear that the only time many whites condemn such behavior is when the bus is backing up on them. For simplicity, the black team represents all People of Color.
All the games are played at the white team’s home stadium where they are cheered and supported while the black team is booed and taunted.
There was a time in our history in which African-Americans were prohibited from competing in Major League Baseball and were relegated to the separate but unequal Negro League. However, President Obama had additional challenges to overcome due to his color.
They may exhibit personality qualities much like “Dr. Jekyll / Mr. The addicted individual withdraws from real people and becomes more focused with individuals they know online. They see the mood swings and make excuses to others. The best time to act is now. This form of addiction is completely psychological. Internet addiction has taken so many years to become established due to the disbelief many have over its legitimacy. What is it that causes this? What are the symptoms? Many people mistakenly believe it’s merely a penchant for checking email or losing track of time while playing a game. Internet addiction is not the same and it’s consequences can be far more devastating. Internet addiction is completely curable and there’s no reason to endure it any longer.
. Hyde.” They are horrible to live with offline, but as long as they have that connection, they are relatively normal.
Internet addiction is a very real condition that affects households worldwide. They watch their loved ones morph into someone else. The most important step is to force the individual to see there is a serious problem. They must not only endure the emotional “mess” they must clean up after their loved one.
They want complete privacy when they are online. Most internet addicts do have an ulterior motive for being online so much.
The greatest tragedy to it all is that those around the addicted individual are the real victims.
It’s fairly easy to spot internet addiction. Many internet addicts, however, aren’t classified with any of these more typical vices. Any addiction becomes an actual “addiction” when it negatively affects the lives of both the addict and all those around them. It may be a private method for indulging in what is actually a gambling or pornography addiction. It may be issues at school with children. This can be skyrocketing bills from gambling or substances. Some may have complete alter identities through the internet. They often make excuses to stay home more, but when they are home, they may seem apprehensive or depressed until they can find a good reason to go online.
There are individuals who like to use the internet as a method of escape from their daily lives. The “fix” is pretending to be someone else.
Fighting Internet Addiction
It often requires professional help to break internet addiction. It may be serious problems in the workplace due to inattention or inactivity. Many will not even stop to talk with people who are visiting. Substance abusers may find it easier to purchase their drug of choice through the internet. If you try to talk to them, you will be ignored